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This would include support for capital market development e. PFG Ghana includes this intervention. As power sectors are reformed, their transmission needs will expand to accommodate increased power supply and demand. Examples of reformed power systems with ambitious transmission and distribution expansion plans include those in Ghana, Tanzania, and Nigeria. To expand, transmission companies TRANSCOs need to mobilize capital for investment and establish a basis for full recovery of the costs of the transmission system.
In some cases, improvements in system operations are necessary. This is particularly important when there are large intermittent renewable generation projects, such wind powered generation. This technical assistance would augment the resources available to the contractor, Manitoba Hydro International. In general, low access rates are not caused by a lack of generation capacity. Rather, they originate in high losses, unsustainable business models for distribution and the broader power industry, and lack of capital to expand the networks.
In addition, lack of appropriate business models for distributed grids and generation, combined with lack of access to private financing, constrain the expansion of decentralized grid supply. Ghana and Tanzania. This policy is intended to reduce tensions between different regions, peoples, or tribal groups. The result is that the tariff applied to isolated grids is too low to cover the operations costs and attract investment, thus necessitating a subsidy.
Changing this uniform national tariff policy, however, will be a major challenge for the Initiative. Financially insolvent power sectors are characterized by low access, poor quality supply, and persistent shortages of electricity e. Expanding generation capacity in Africa critically depends on financially viable electricity distribution companies. In general, high losses are defined as loss levels that make a power system unsustainable and significantly impair the ability of a power system to purchase additional wholesale electricity and expand access on a sustainable basis.
When implemented as a package, commercialization will generally drive losses down to levels that make power sectors sustainable. However, commercialization usually needs some basic political and policy drivers to succeed. Usually, this involves introducing an independent, professionally competent board of directors, improved bylaws, incentives and penalties linked to performance, and improved corporate planning and financial management systems and procedures.
Examples of this include Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda. In some situations, replacement of service drops and relocation of meters to remote locations is also needed. Many of these require policy and regulatory reforms, combined with changes in corporate governance in the power sector.
These will often be a combination of power sector reform and restructuring, corporatization and improvement of corporate governance of public utilities, and introduction of private participation. Countries that would benefit from new power sector policies include Ghana, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. In cases where there are creditworthy discos Kenya, Uganda, and in 2 — 3 years, Nigeria , help plan and guarantee bond issuance for commercialization funding.
PPP transactions are one of the lowest cost methods of commercializing a DisCos. This could be in collaboration with private equity firms that are investing and lending to the privatized DISCOs. At the national level, USAID will accelerate clean energy projects and increase energy access by promoting a regulatory and enabling environment conducive to private investment while simultaneously protecting consumers and encouraging renewable, sustainable generation. At the regional level, USAID will continue its support for policy and regulatory frameworks that strengthen regional power pools to provide merit order dispatch, increase energy access, and reduce power generation costs.
The seven focus countries h ave markedly different levels of policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks. In addition, there is a great variance in power system capacity of the selected countries, which range from 1, MW in Tanzania to over 4, MW in Nigeria. The unbundling of vertically integrated utilities and development of a competitive power market, whenever feasible and practical, will be encouraged. It is recognized that, in the smaller systems, collusion and predatory pricing may distort competitive markets to the detriment of consumers.
With single buyer models and IPPs, it is important to encourage competitive and transparent processes to keep system costs as low as possible. The sustainability of a power system and the incentives for private participation depend importantly on having an adequate legal and regulatory framework. It must have a competent institutional framework, a regulator. USAID will work to ensure that national regulators are both independent and accountable.
Ensure that rural governance processes include the active representation and leadership of women or other traditionally marginalized segments of the population. This can be achieved by creating a partnership between the public sector, academia and research organizations. Assist in setting up or improving and managing the process of monitoring, analyzing, evaluating, and reporting progress toward achieving the milestones of a Rural Electrification Plan by creating a Program Management Plan for the REAs in the region.
This intervention should ease REAs project bottlenecks and increase the number of rural electrification transactions by creating a set of tools and best practices for Pipeline Development, project definition and opportunity identification and prioritization. Design and support the implementation of a regional plan to transform the inventory of diesel driven generators into natural gas recaptured flared gas and producer gas from gasifiers and other conversion technologies.
Foster opportunities for entrepreneurial women to become part of the modern energy technology value chain. The transition to gas, however, relies on the premise that the private investors that have discovered gas will develop the fields for supply to the domestic market under current conditions. Power Africa will focus on assisting governments to resolve this conundrum by advising on best practices in resource management and working to facilitate private sector investment around gas development projects.
There will be two principal elements in this area: 5. This may include assistance to update hydrocarbon laws and related regulations in line with international best practices, improve oversight capacity of relevant government institutions, ensure transparent and sound financial management, and adopt appropriate environmental and social policies for oil and gas sector management.
The core objective is to help these countries establish the capacity to manage their oil and gas sector resources responsibly. EGCI supports a broad range of U. EGCI assistance complements other reform efforts and aims to coordinate with and leverage the work of other donors to every extent possible. Power Africa and EGCI share the objective of promoting host nation policy and regulatory reforms that would better manage energy resources and create a positive business environment to attract investors.
A policy dialogue with Mozambique on energy sector issues will include robust political engagement on resource management issues. As part of this effort, we will coordinate with other key players active in this area, especially Norway, the UK, and the World Bank, as well as leverage best practices and trust funds through the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. However, due to a number of commercial, technical, policy and regulatory barriers, Nigeria has not been able to fully realize its natural gas potential.
As a result, it ranks second in the world in terms of AG production being flared. Two major issues stem from gas flaring. The first is the loss in potential revenue by literally burning it up. Considering the poverty of Nigeria, the reliance on expensive alternatives to supply energy to rural areas, and the unmet demand for gas, there is a large incentive to capture the gas and utilize it to bring in additional revenues.
Since the late s, there have been a series of unsuccessful attempts to address the issue of gas flaring. In spite of these numerous initiatives, gas flaring and venting levels remain unacceptably high. The second issue is what the gas flaring does to the environment. Flaring of gas rich in liquids can produce smoke that could also contribute to climate change due to aerosol effects.
In addition, there are concerns that pollutants from flaring can have harmful health and environmental consequences for local residents. Until recently, security issues in the hydrocarbon producing area of the Niger Delta have also caused a slowdown on any progress being made. However, the overarching problem is a lack of a realistic and clearly defined strategy and action plan to recover and monetize the flared associated gas.
Ghana Gas Framework. The Early Phase Gas Infrastructure project, which includes the construction of an offshore pipeline to carry Jubilee gas, onshore pipelines and a gas processing facility, is being built by a Chinese company with a Chinese Development Bank loan.
These projections are based on the assumption that the existing and proposed thermal power plants will all use natural gas. The importation of liquefied natural gas LNG is a strategic gas supply option that is under consideration by GoG. Managing Tanzania Gas Resources. Specifically, the power supply is less than 24 hours per day or experiences seasonal, daily, or hourly variations in reliability. Mere extension of existing feeders beyond technical limitations results in poor quality electricity service and higher technical losses.
SWAPs have been a successful approach to coordinate investments in education and health infrastructure and services. In recent years, SWAPs has made its transition into the power sector too as way to accelerate access to power. USAID will continue providing technical assistance in support of ongoing grid expansion programs with a focus on improved planning, project design, and execution with private sector participation. In particular, USAID will work closely with rural electrification agencies in the Power Africa countries to assist them in deploying resources to accelerate access.
The Initiative will provide TA to identify opportunities for improving access to energy in rural areas through the innovative and efficient use of waste biomass. USAID will support developing and strengthening regional and national capacities to manage and use biomass waste streams for energy, primarily in rural areas. The initial focus will be in generating opportunities for new transactions within the value chains in Feed the Future activities at regional and at national levels.
However, the actual connections could be to a public service building i. Ethiopia is a good example of this situation. USAID will provide TA to assess the number of communities that are connected to the grid but do not provide access to all households. USAID will share this information with municipal and community development authorities and the DISCOs to define a plan to increase the number of households connected to the grid in those communities.
In some cases, power projects result in negative impacts on the environment and local populations e. These and other factors make any power sector reformer vulnerable to bureaucratic inaction and political opposition. Some private sector actors have indicated initial skepticism that host country leaders would support such a group. Rather, they must be customized to the political constraints of the host country and be in line with the technical and political capacity of the country to implement such reforms.
These locally staffed units will be lean, highly skilled teams. The units will support existing or new efforts to remove obstacles to reforms or specific projects, improve coordination, help ministries resolve problems, and provide advisory services to government program managers. In other countries, Delivery Units or similar structures are already in place. To the extent possible, Power Africa will support these existing structures where it makes sense to avoid duplication and reduce costs.
The Delivery Units will provide a platform for better alignment between host governments and companies, investors, donors, and civil society to accelerate the pace of reforms and improve governance. While transaction advisors on the ground will focus on bringing priority projects to financial close, they also will be key resources to identify the needs, placement, and focus of the Power Delivery Units in each particular country, and depending upon experience, they may serve the role of an interim Power Delivery Unit.
The following lays out the proposed approach that Power Africa will take in each of the focus countries. The Government of Tanzania GoT is actively seeking development partner support to finance the Delivery Unit structure. It also developed detailed implementation plans and performance management system to ensure accountability and delivery of results across priority sectors. On April 11, the cabinet approved the plans produced out of the labs.
The governance structure described above is being finalized, and interim staffing mechanisms are being established pending recruitment of PDB and MDU staff. The Government of Ethiopia does not currently have a Delivery Unit focused on energy. The U. Additionally the Prime Minister has indicated that he would rather hold current ministries accountable as opposed to establishing parallel ministries via Delivery Units.
In this context, it is recommended that focus be placed on capacity building within the ministries and to let potential delivery units grow organically from this engagement. Cabinet approved the JCAP in principle in May and joint technical teams will begin managing its implementation in June As Kenya pursues its Vision goals, including greater private sector investment, new institutional arrangements may be made. The deliberations are frank and policy reform is an important agenda item.
In integrating energy policy reforms into a wider government LEDS, the Climate Change Secretariat will also be an important stakeholder. The priority energy areas of focus include clean energy resources such as geothermal, solar, wind and hydropower generation. This approach enables EAC to identify sources of cheap electricity from hydro and geothermal resources for ten Eastern Africa countries where the EAC could interconnect to complement development of locally available resources.
The center uses a regional approach to address barriers to implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in East Africa. COMESA encourages the establishment of independent regulators to promote investment, develop the resources and infrastructure of a modern energy sector, promote competition, and to ensure unfettered entry of new players. These facilities are available to businesses and enterprises incorporated and doing business in the PTA Bank member states.
The PTA Bank gives priority to projects that have high potential for positive regional economic impact that benefit more than one country and promote regional integration. WAPP seeks to integrate the operations of national power systems into a unified regional electricity market mechanism that will provide, in medium and long term, a regular, viable and affordable power supply to the population of ECOWAS member states.
To establish a functional power pool, WAPP plans to develop efficient human resources capital in its member utilities and in the Secretariat. GRMF provides grants to investors to reduce costs and risks. GRMF provides public and private sector developers with partial grants for surface studies leading to drilling and for reservoir confirmation drilling to mitigate the risk associated with geothermal resource exploration. In , power trade flows in the EAPP were just 0. The main flows involve Egypt importing and Uganda exporting small amounts of power to Rwanda and Tanzania.
A World Bank study on the impact of regional energy trade indicated that without regional power pooling, future trade volumes would be 12 TWh per year through to With power pooling and trade expansion, 28 the volume of power traded in EAPP could increase substantially to TWh by Despite the huge potential for regional power trade within power pools, electricity traded is still low.
Analyses conducted by the AfDB in indicated that all five power pools in Africa were making progress in the process of promoting regional power trade. The AfDB report stated there was strong support and commitment among the development partners in making power pools a 30 reality.
In , all the power pools were at advanced stages of implementing interconnection projects. They were also at different stages of adopting regional regulation and market rules and in concluding bilateral contracts for regional trade. In , all the power pools have regional current and updated master plans.
Except for COMELEC, the four other power pools have formally approved their list of regional priority projects and are currently mobilizing funding. Leveraging its existing institutional and legal structures, the EAC recently initiated steps to create its own power pool.
However, the EAC may not be the most appropriate institution to host the operations of a power pool due to the geographical realities of the power supply and demand in the broader East Africa region. Transformed and functional power pools will likely attract increased private sector investment because of the larger capacity of regional power markets and the reduced financial risk offered by such a pooled market.
Maria Gleta and Domunli, located in Benin and Ghana respectively. Support the acceleration of transmission infrastructure implementation for power trading among their respective member countries. This institutional model responds to the regional challenges of energy access, energy security and climate change mitigation. Assist national government ministries in the development of policy frameworks that create attractive and stable investment climates for private sector. This would include the enhanced ability to coordinate and manage dispatching including management of intermittencies and congestion.
Assist Power Pools to establish governance framework and enforcement of Power Pool market rules. Improve the visibility of the Power Pools among member countries and improve their capacity to negotiate PPP with private sector on key regional infrastructure projects.
Through Power Africa, USAID seeks to create new energy partnerships and alliances and to leverage substantial amounts of private investment to create sustainable energy markets and to complement and strengthen the investment of USG funds and expertise. There is broad acknowledgement across the public and private sectors that sustainable solutions to serious development issues require collaboration.
By focusing on outcomes, partners define success early and build alliances more likely to generate significant value. To accelerate national progress in African partner countries, USAID will work to support a range of private sector partnerships and to encourage the commitments of private sector partners to increase investments where and when the conditions for such investments are right.
Through Power Africa, private sector engagement activities have the potential to take several forms. These include collaboratively planning and designing new projects or partnerships, utilizing human resources, maximizing local presence, leveraging technical expertise and convening power to improve enabling environment, and identify transaction opportunities.
Potential Power Africa private sector partners include energy project developers, rural electric cooperatives, utility companies, equipment providers, energy technology and service providers, investors and financiers, and engineering, procurement and construction EPC companies. In this light, private sector partners may be seen as both a stakeholder and potential resource partner.
What private sector actors stand to gain if the power sector grows and prospers? Conversely, what private sector actors stand to lose if it does not? What corporations, foundations, and other actors in the private nonprofit sector have interests in energy in the Power Africa focus countries?
What private sector actors might be a critical part of the solution to challenges in the power sector? What civil society actors need to be involved to ensure that negative social and environmental impacts are mitigated, community needs are addressed, and that marginalized communities get to share in the opportunities that arise?
Reaching out to potential partners is the first step in supporting effective sustainable development strategies. Leveraging these existing relationships, USAID and these organizations could jointly create panel discussions, private roundtables, or other meetings to initiate stakeholder engagements. The various involved USG agencies involved and U.
Of course, each agency will implement its own legislative authorities, Presidential direction, and internal policies and procedures, while the ITG serves as the coordinating point across agencies. Negative impacts may also include the temporary or permanent displacement of people without proper consultation and compensation and environmental damage or disturbance that can adversely impact food supply, water supplies, and 33 livelihoods.
It is important for developing country governments to be in a position to negotiate strong deals at the outset, maximizing the impact of the investment for the benefit of the country as well as, if possible, providing flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances without the need to invoke contested renegotiations.
Creating a strong deal at the outset, from the perspective of both the investor and the host country, may minimize the risk that the deal is revisited. As a result government negotiators may have limited or no experience with negotiating similar deals and a limited understanding of the fiscal and other options available to them.
This will create a partnership between international law firms and African governments to develop skills and transfer knowledge to national lawyers. Granting and Renegotiating Infrastructure Concessions. Doing it right. The World Bank. Washington D. Caseload Statistics. Investment Contracts and Sustainable Development: How to make contracts for fairer and more sustainable natural resource investments. Natural Resource Issues No. London, p. This will be accomplished through engaging specialized international legal counsel to work with national lawyers to advise the government during the negotiation of these agreements.
These negotiations may include negotiating power purchase agreements, transmission and distribution agreements, licensing agreements, leasing agreements, and other related transactions. The first project for assistance has already been identified, the Corbetti power project in Ethiopia. To that end, the ALSF will begin providing assistance to the Ethiopian government using the guiding principles in this document. These terms will be negotiated by the ALSF on behalf of the government.
The fees may be based on a fixed fee arrangement or an hourly arrangement depending on the circumstances which will be determined on a project by project basis. In addition, the PALC firms will pledge to provide XX hours of pro bono training to African law firms on energy transactions, project finance and other related legal skills.
Each pro bono training program will be designed in coordination with the ALSF in order to ensure maximum impact and skills transfer to national lawyers. This program will include a particular emphasis on monitoring and compliance regarding the contracts to reflect the importance of the implementation stage of the contracts. These agreements can serve as templates to help reduce transaction costs on future transactions. IGD will continue this work in collaboration with other development partners.
In exchange, African lawyers may be sent abroad to work with international counsel to enhance the capacity of the national lawyers. Procurement mechanisms to be employed, as well as the actions taken prior to the official announcement of the Initiative with reference to these procurement mechanisms, include the following: 5. NARUC also offers trainings through its annual regulatory studies program. The PCGA Platform allows the Africa Bureau and missions to focus the use of existing USAID tools, and take the lead in developing unique and innovative approaches to reduce private sector financial risk and to leverage both the international and the local private sector investors in development.
PCGA focuses on working with missions, investors, and local institutions to build sustainable platforms for supporting increased investment and trade in Africa by creating an environment that supports private sector initiatives using the expertise of USAID and local institutions. Contracts for Specialized Services. Such contracts may be initiated if it is determined that consolidating all Power Africa requirements under the successor contract to AIP would increase the size and scope of the contract to the point where it becomes too great for reasonable management by a single contractor.
Alternatively, such service contracts may be necessary if additional services were required which were outside the capacity or expertise of the contractor performing work under the successor contract to AIP. NAMA Support Mechanism : Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions NAMAs are broadly acknowledged among the international climate change community as one of the main pathways for developing countries to achieve meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas GHG emissions over the coming decades.
Institutional Support Contract ISC : The purpose of this procurement would be to provide technical and programmatic support services to priority missions supporting Power Africa. The East Africa and West Africa missions will support the Power Africa countries in their region to meet bilateral and regional goals and objectives.
Core Personnel. The costs for this management unit will include an Energy Specialist PSC and approximately seven FSNs to provide program and financial management support, communications, program development and transportation. In addition, a short term Energy Specialist will assist the team in setting up the office until the permanent Energy Specialist is selected.
These personnel will travel periodically to the field to offer technical assistance, support and capacity building. Technical Assistance. The Initiative will employ additional technical experts to provide support directly to governments to negotiate transactions with private sector investors.
For example, with OPIC, USAID could hold an investment conference to raise the profile of investment opportunities in Africa or offer a joint request for proposals that require startup funding and risk guarantees. Projected Transactions: Transactions are at the core of Power Africa. Through a rigorous process, high priority projects have been identified. It is anticipated that some of these may fail and new projects will present themselves. Completion of these projects will require technical support, capacity building and policy reform.
The Nairobi office will be collocated with the East Africa Regional Mission and will include an expatriate Deputy Coordinator and Senior Energy Advisor and local FSNs to provide program and financial management, communications, program development and logistic support. Embassy compound prior to the official announcement of the Initiative.
Power Africa will be largely implemented through the dedicated mechanisms defined under Section 5. Bilateral and regional missions will have the option to use bilateral assistance mechanisms when they deem them appropriate. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan Overview. Data Collection. Baseline values will help determine the targets for each indicator. Collection of baseline data will also enable rigorous evaluation of the project using evaluation designs that generate the most credible evidence.
Objective Level. At the Initiative level, USAID will assess Power Africa outcomes which measure progress toward objective and goal achievement through quantitative and qualitative performance indicators. Does our experience confirm the current understanding of these relationships?
How should the Initiative leverage these insights? What were the key factors that facilitated or inhibited achievement of these objectives? What are characteristics of these barriers? To what extent has Power Africa achieved success in employing this financing mechanism? Analytical Considerations 9.
If met, such objectives will have tremendous positive impacts on the lives of millions of Africans. However, energy policies and programming relating to fuel choices, and energy generation and delivery have impacts on development that are not generally analyzed in all of their social and economic dimensions, or are not typically expressed.
Women are capable technicians and managers who bring enormous value to the energy industry. Energy planning is often focused on increasing supplies of fuel or electricity, especially for industrial and urban uses, with little attention to the energy demand characteristics of women, especially those in underserved rural areas. Furthermore, since in many areas of Africa women are the primary users of energy and energy equipment, it makes good sense for them to be involved in designing and implementing energy policies and programming to meet their own energy needs.
An analysis of sustainability assesses the probability of project results being sustained, including listing the assumptions on which the conclusions are based. Factors that affect the prospects of sustainability include economic, financial, gender, geographical, social soundness, cultural, institutional capacity, political economy, technical, sectoral, and environmental.
However, while the increased access to power the improved generation, transmission, distribution, and operational power pools are expected to be sustainable in general, this will not be the case for every improvement or investment. Electricity is a key driver of prosperity and regional populations understand quality of life, which accounts for the desire for access to it. T herefore, transitional strategies for women engaged in these economic activities must be considered.
Continuing to meet the regional demand for power will depend upon increased capacity and capability of individuals and institutions in the energy sectors of Power Africa focus countries. Another factor in outcome durability is the sustainability of the new financing models employed by Power Africa, which focus on private sector involvement and on the conditions necessary for cost recovery and profitable operations across the system as a whole.
For example, this includes ensuring for a generation project that the distributions losses of the power to be generated and distributed are low, that the tariffs collected on using the power are sufficient to cover both the construction and recurrent costs, and maintenance can be properly carried out.
These activities are like construction scaffolding which aid in the construction of a building, but are not part of the structure. While individual countries may continue specific activities, such as the delivery units or interactions with an advisory group, continuation of the activities are not part of the Initiative per se and are their sustainment is not necessary for the success of the project. It is expected that most, but not all, of the policy and regulatory reforms, once they have proven themselves to be effective, will remain and serve as examples for further reforms.
Current prospects for private investment are generally bleak. Power Africa aims to improve these conditions by offering to facilitate financing for power projects in return for host countries implementing policy and regulatory reforms that are sufficiently modernized and robust to protect investors and consumers while ensuring cost recovery and profitable operations.
In addition to simply supporting and encouraging such changes, Power Africa also includes technical assistance to help countries improve investment conditions and build their capacity to better manage their future energy sector resources, institutions, and operations.
Another important aspect of setting conditions to induce investments is a positive assessment of the financial feasibility of each target project. In the end, if conditions, including pricing and regulatory regime, are right then investors are likely to commit to financing Power Africa projects. While errors can be made and circumstances changes, in general the investments will generally be profitable, beneficial, and sustainable.
Climate change is among the greatest challenges to sustainable economic development. Failure to meet this challenge could jeopardize many of the development gains the international community and the U. Mitigation work is funded by both Clean Energy and Sustainable Landscapes directives, and carried out under the umbrella of the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies program.
Under this framework, the directives can be defined as: Clean Energy supports investment in clean energy and energy efficiency. USAID Operating Units will need to ensure that appropriate analyses and assessments are produced to guide investments, in line with Country Development and Cooperation Strategies CDCSs , such as, a climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessment.
This is especially important when considering the vulnerability of energy investments to climate change. Through the integration objective, Power Africa will factor in climate change knowledge and practice into the Initiative, ensuring investments are resilient to climate changes and, when possible, lowering GHG emissions.
Through Power Africa, this will be expanded to two additional countries at minimum. These are all opportunities for attracting private sector investment. Power Africa will invest in socially and environmentally sound transaction support capacity within the government so that renewable energy projects might become a reality. Further, the energy sector provides significant opportunities for mitigation. That is, taking actions to reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions and to reduce the human causes of emissions by moving towards a resource efficient economy that is as low carbon as possible.
Unclear land use and water rights are also an impediment to attracting investors. For hydropower projects, investors need to establish way leaves and easements along rivers, and clarify other riparian rights. Potential problems may arise in countries with weak land tenure systems or in areas that are held as community or customary lands. Although USAID will not be directly funding infrastructure investment, it may buy into larger donor projects where construction is being done.
The Strategy addresses safe drinking water supply, sanitation for health, management of water resources, and improving water productivity. Its goal is to save lives and advance development through improvements in water supply, sanitation, and hygiene WASH programs, and through sound management and use of water for food security.
To the extent the Africa Regional program is limited to such activities, a Categorical Exclusion from environmental 37 further environmental review applies. Each Operating Unit will have its own specific IEE in place, specifying an environmental review procedure. The Africa Regional IEE for the Power Africa Initiative is expected to be approved on July , and stipulates, as a condition of implementation of this project, that Missions and Operating Units must develop and approve individual IEEs for each activity or instrument prior to obligating funds.
A Negative Determination with conditions applies to any activities facilitating investment in infrastructure including improved transmission and distribution systems, access to electricity, etc. See section 4. If such screening determines that the proposed activity may have significant impacts on the environment, then the appropriate managing unit will consult with the BEO to determine whether an Environmental Assessment is needed.
The Bureau for Africa will need to clarify the nature of what is being "enabled" with the business, investment, energy, trade, legal, etc. This is a shared responsibility between the center and the field. As a rule, and in keeping with USAID Forward, the host country will expect an Environmental Assessment to be done if a significant category of investment is involved and it triggers an appropriate level of scrutiny under the host country's environmental agencies' procedures.
USAID needs to ensure that an independent review of the Environmental Assessments take place, even if the host government approves a specific project. If host governments or regional organizations have the institutional capacity and political support to undertake their own environmental impact assessments to a minimum of our 22 CFR standards, and this includes having the permanent professional staff, full funding, internal laws and regulations, and the will to rigorously impose the mitigating measures in both the design and ongoing implementation of the activity that will achieve this, the best we can do is to ask them to undertake the environmental impact assessment and submit it for our USAID approval and create a mechanism for USAID to monitor its effective implementation.
With respect to activities carried out by Public International Organizations and other USG Agencies, typically, USAID will default to the environmental review procedures of the lead implementing agency for an activity. Private actors also often will fund the EAs in line with host country requirements. USAID will need to stay appropriately engaged to determine the boundaries of our responsibility. Every Mission will need to ensure that its own environmental compliance house is in order.
Every Mission involved will need to have or produce its own appropriate IEE s. If proposed transactions are within the parameters of the Power Africa IEE, then that will be documented. The point is to perform an internal environmental due diligence review, make a determination, document it and ensure that the appropriate mitigation measures are implemented by the responsible parties.
It is recommended that the Nairobi hub include an environmental advisor who can facilitate the due diligence process and promote efficiencies across donors, private actors and governments, to minimize duplicative effort in environmental due diligence.
Such an analysis would include the likelihood that the benefits derived from the availability of energy will be distributed across the population, rather than concentrated on targeted populations and elites and that the social impact of the availability of energy are borne equitably among various impacted groups. Youth constitute a greater percentage of the population of Africa than any other continent. Many disabled people are at high risk of fuel poverty in addition to extreme economic poverty, with potentially serious health consequences.
Benefit changes in relation to fuel poverty can potentially help or even hinder disabled populations. Similarly, elderly populations face unique challenges related to energy. LGBT communities face heightened economic and social discrimination that may prevent them from accessing credit for energy modernization, employment in energy sectors or simply from physical security related to fuel acquisition.
In order to address these specific challenges and opportunities, more data driven research is required. Achieving necessary reforms is tied to the interrelated political and economic interests that underlie governance challenges facing regional political leaders. In this context, it may be prudent to conduct a political economy analysis to examine the dynamic relationship between political, economic and societal forces supporting or inhibiting durable change. Activity Checklists for the participating countries will be prepared by each of the six Missions and cleared by the cognizant program office and regional legal advisor in advance of any programmatic obligations in each country.
In addition, the International Center for Energy Environment and Development Nigeria , studies carbon finance schemes and energy efficiencies. Communication and Outreach Inherent in the structure and approach of Power Africa are outreach and communication activities. The complexity of this communications task is not the result of attempting to address multiple audiences. Against that picture, our challenge statement emphasizes the economic growth opportunities left unrealized due to a lack of affordable and reliable electricity.
Our message is that America stands with Africa to create a new model of partnership that accelerates economic growth through power generation and distribution projects underpinned by enduring policy and regulatory reform. Interviews explaining the Power Africa process would feature leaders from the Advisors Group, USAID officials, and African leaders, energy experts and citizens who can explain from their own experience the benefits of access to electricity.
Social media in countries where this is a factor will be used to amplify these statements and generate public understanding and support for Power Africa projects. Transaction Advisors will also become effective spokespersons on the Continent with regional publics. Under the Power Africa partnership, the goal is to increase the access of the total population to 34 percent by There is significant potential for energy transactions in biomass, small hydro, solar, and gas generation and transmission.
There is potential to bring over 1, MW of new power generation projects to closure and to reduce transmission and distribution losses to below 20 percent, but this will require improved utility operations and a clear framework for private sector engagement.
These reforms target areas of opportunity that address the poor financial standing of utilities, while maneuvering public opposition to tariff increases and upcoming elections that inhibit progress toward necessary reforms in certain areas. BRN will develop strategic and detailed implementation plans across a range of sectors, including energy. Energy Sector Challenges Governance: The sector has faced a number of corporate governance issues that have hindered its development.
The new Act is intended to strengthen the functions of the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority PPRA , including the power to bar a bidder, who has been previously barred by international organizations in cases related or unrelated to fraud and corruption and the power to cancel procurement proceedings for breaches of the new Act. The implementation of the new Act will constitute a relevant step towards building a sound procurement system in line with the best practices in the industry.
Tanzania is currently providing substantial subsidies through the provision of liquid fuel to the IPTL thermal plant and the financing of the Emergency Power Plan. This issue is addressed in the JCAP through a commitment to redesign lifeline tariffs. Tanzania must reach cost reflective tariffs, but is far from that goal and currently has among the lowest tariff levels within the EAC. This issue is addressed in the JCAP. Resolving the current financing crisis. Improved power sector planning.
In the medium term, the planning function must be more clearly delineated within the power sector, with clearer public communications and less instability in planning assumptions, which hinder both public as well as private sector investment planning.
Expanding rural access. While urbanization rates are increasing, so are rural expectations for access to electrical power, particularly given increased natural gas discoveries. Managing gas resources. Around 90 million people continue to live in the dark and average annual per capita power consumption is only kWh, among the lowest in the world. The Act also provides for the creation of the institutions required to protect consumers and stimulate investment in the power sector, and provides for the possibility for the Government to eventually introduce a market with competing firms.
Most importantly, the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan established reform in the power sector as one of its highest priorities. The initiative is led from the highest level of government through the direct involvement of the presidency together with the Ministry of Power and Utility Parastatals and agencies. The improved coordination and deep commitment from the administration has led to a tangible improvement of the power supply situation and to some initial promising steps toward addressing the root causes of the sector's challenges, through the launch of a comprehensive reform program.
NBET , which acts as a special purpose government entity set up during this transitional stage in the power market to buy from the Generating Companies GenCos for resale to the Distribution Companies DisCos. The completion of additional NIPP plants will begin to build the confidence of Nigerian consumers that the government is serious about addressing the massive power shortage that has persisted in the country for many years. Still, the power sector reforms remain nascent, since none of the work to date has led to an actual privatization or a fully effective functional and legal separation of the government owned companies.
Failure to make the required investments risks derailing the ongoing expansion of the generation sector, profitability of privatized Discos and the efficient functioning of the privatized power market. The power sector in particular is suffering from a lack of gas to generate as numerous gas fired plants either are operating at reduced levels or not at all due to lack of gas. Two major issues stem from the flaring of gas. Considering the poverty of Nigeria, the reliance on expensive alternatives to supply energy to rural areas, and the unmet demand associated for gas, there is a large incentive to capture the gas and utilize it to bring in additional revenues.
Since the late s, there has been a series of unsuccessful attempts to address the issue of gas flaring.
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Come check out the 10 greatest torrent websites today! Ten best rated torrent sites. The legendary selection — just a click away! Introduction Is it fair to call torrenting a hobby? I am Mukundane Shsfiki humbly apply as a driver. Am a male, Ugandan, aged 28 , l am capable in doing job and l promise to work hard l have a experience of 3 years and l have been working with africel company. My contact Am otim Bob aged 37, highly trained in all vehicle dynamics capable and willing to work long and near distances with a vest experience of 7years in driving.
Bwebale Bob age 35y highly trained in all vehicles with experience of 8y in driving Uganda,Kenya and Sudan my contact I send my greetings to all reading this and am writing this to show my interest in working with your organisation as adriver. Am a Ugandan male, an instructor in Prestige driving school with defensive skills and certificate of competence from ministry of works. Am ready for your call. Your email address will not be published.
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. The Independent. Lukyamuzi Joseph January 17, at pm. Charles Sserugo January 18, at am. Bwambale Ronnie January 18, at pm.
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I will be greatful. I am Mukundane Shsfiki humbly apply as a driver. Am a male, Ugandan, aged 28 , l am capable in doing job and l promise to work hard l have a experience of 3 years and l have been working with africel company. My contact Am otim Bob aged 37, highly trained in all vehicle dynamics capable and willing to work long and near distances with a vest experience of 7years in driving. Bwebale Bob age 35y highly trained in all vehicles with experience of 8y in driving Uganda,Kenya and Sudan my contact I send my greetings to all reading this and am writing this to show my interest in working with your organisation as adriver.
Am a Ugandan male, an instructor in Prestige driving school with defensive skills and certificate of competence from ministry of works. Am ready for your call. In recent years, streaming services have taken over the globe.
BakaBT is a private torrent tracker site based on BitTorrent. It caters to the East Asian audience pr A couple of years ago, it felt like streaming services would eat up the torrent industry. However, bo You can find the most popular torrent sites, organized by popularity. Bookmark and share this non-stop updated torrent site.
Updated: Today, torrent sites listed. Best Torrent Sites Have you been looking for an easy, simple, and user-friendly way to find the top 10 best torrent sites on the web? Well, you have come to the right place.
I have combed through my hundreds of torrent website reviews in order to bring you only the best of the best resources for finding your favorite free indie movies, TV shows, music, eBooks, software, games, and much, much more. Come check out the 10 greatest torrent websites today! Ten best rated torrent sites. The legendary selection — just a click away! Introduction Is it fair to call torrenting a hobby? Introduction Where would we be without free indie music?
The art form commonly referred to as th Introduction Since the launch of torrents in the world of the internet, there have been two different types of tor Introduction Russia has an incredible amount of torrent websites that let you download all kinds of free indie con Introduction In the past few decades, many torrent sites have risen to the occasion, but very few have been able t Introduction With so many different torrent search engines out there to choose from, how are you supposed to be ab Introduction Kick Ass Torrents can stand in as a great example of what every great torrent search engine should of Introduction So, you are looking for a new torrent search engine … well, you have come to the right place.
Torrent Search Engine Torrent Search Engines make it easier than ever to browse thousands of torrents from multiple sites all with one search. If you are looking for the Google of torrenting, come check out my list of the best torrent search engines today! Use search these torrent search engines. Introduction There are so many different torrent search engines out there to choose from nowadays, finding the bes Introduction Private and open tracker websites often fall short on free indie content and also have different rest Introduction What is your preferred way to download torrents?
Introduction Sometimes no matter how many individual torrent sites that you look through, it seems like you might Introduction Which is the best torrent site for you? What is BTDigg? Introduction Finding torrents with good quality files and good download speed can be an arduous task.
Documentary Torrent Sites Are you looking for the best free indie documentaries that the internet has to offer? If so, you have come to the right place. TorrentSites has the most comprehensive list of all of the best indie documentary torrent sites on the web. No matter what topic you are looking for -- WWII, health, climate change, conspiracies, aliens, pandemics, government secrets, etc. Come check out TorrentSites list of reviews of the greatest torrent websites for free indie documentaries today!
Introduction Torrent Galaxy is, as its name suggests, one of the biggest torrent trackers on the web. Introduction There are very few country-specific torrent trackers that have a huge free indie content library alon Introduction When it comes time to find a new go-to torrent tracker, there are many factors that must be taken int Introduction There many websites across the world that are known for their extensive torrent database but the only Introduction With the latest free indie content in high-definition, HDBits is among the few websites that can make Introduction Torrent websites are the easiest way to download or stream the latest free indie content.
Introduction Torrent tracking websites are popular among tech-savvy internet users as they can be a one-stop solut Introduction Private torrent communities are growing around the world. Introduction Users in the torrent world love private torrent tracking sites. Introduction With so many torrent trackers all over the web, finding the perfect site for your torrenting needs is Introduction Country specific torrent websites are often ignored by downloaders due to their low number of communi Introduction Large torrent websites have many wonderful features that make them the most sought after option for s Introduction Downloaders often have a no strings attached relationship with torrent websites which is purely about Introduction Private torrent tracking websites are one of the ideal ways to get free indie content.
Introduction The internet is filled with thousands of private torrent trackers each having a community of almost Introduction Private trackers that are restricted to a specific geographical location have a limited number of mem Introduction If you are looking up reviews of private torrent trackers, it means one of two things: 1.
Introduction Are you looking for a new, efficient, and powerful torrent search engine? If you are looking for the best torrent sites specifically for downloading indie films for free, you have come to the right place. Find free indie movies HD, 4K , public domain flicks and trailers.
Introduction With the sheer volume of torrent sites that are on the web nowadays, finding the right one can be a d Introduction The torrent landscape has changed drastically in the Spanish regions. Introduction Whether you are looking for the best, highest-quality torrents of free indie TV shows, free indie mov Introduction In recent years, a large number of torrent users have been inclined towards being a part of a prestig Introduction There are average, normal torrent trackers … and then there are sites like Arena BG that go beyond wh Introduction Anyone who has experience using different torrent sites will tell you: not all torrent sites are crea Introduction When looking for a new torrent tracker, finding the right one for you is often not as easy as it may Introduction When it comes time to find a quick and high-quality torrent of your favorite free indie movie, free i Introduction Streaming services have brought down the torrent market cap enormously.
Introduction Are you looking to download all of the best free indie TV shows, free indie movies, free indie docume Introduction When it comes time to pick a new torrent tracker or add a new one to your list of go-to sites , it c Introduction Every once in a while, you stumble onto a little-known torrent tracker that seems like it just might Introduction Have you ever wondered why it is so hard to find a torrent search engine that looks as good as it per Introduction There are so many torrent sites out there to choose from these days.
Introduction How do you know when you have found the perfect torrent index site? Introduction In most general torrent websites, anime usually makes up for a small part among all the torrent categ Introduction Bit Torrent AM is a public torrent tracker. Introduction If you are in the market for a new torrent tracker, you have definitely come to the right place.
Introduction With so many torrent sites out there nowadays to choose from, how on earth are you supposed to figure Introduction OMG Torrent may not be the first site that comes to mind when you think of the best torrent trackers Introduction If you are in the market for a new, effective torrent search engine, you have come to precisely the r Introduction When it comes to downloading all of your favorite free indie movies, free indie music, free indie TV Introduction So, you are in the market for a new torrent tracker.
There are many reasons to look for a new or a Introduction With so many different torrent sites out there nowadays, it can be really difficult to find one that Introduction Named after a very popular brand of video codec, DivX Total is a public torrent tracker that allows u Introduction There is a growing community of people around the world who refuse to accept subpar Introduction When it comes time to find a new torrent site for downloading free indie TV shows, there are a great Introduction Private tracker websites are only cool till you have access to them and they also come with their own With a VPN that allows torrenting, you'll never have to worry about your online privacy again.
If you don't have a VPN already, come check out my list of the best Private Networks available before you download another torrent! Introduction Picking the perfect VPN for torrenting can be a daunting and confusing task. Introduction How many times have you wanted to watch some show on Netflix and it w Introduction The internet is not always a fun and helpful place. Introduction There are a lot of VPN services out there that are all talk.
Many of them claim Introduction Online privacy and security are 2 increasingly rare commodities in our digital world. Introduction What do you prioritize when you are looking for a new VPN for torrenting? Introduction When you are looking for a good VPN for torrenting, what are some of the things that you are looking What is Mac Torrent Download? Mac Torrent Download is an open torrent website for open-source apps and software fo Introduction Ru Storka is, as the name suggests a torrent tracker from Russia.
Introduction Torrent trackers are only getting better. Introduction Programming software can be costly and downloading them from an open torrent website can be a cumbers Introduction YGG Torrent is probably not the first site that you think of when you think of public torrent tracker Introduction Research papers and the thesis of remarkable authors can be a great source of knowledge and can be pr Introduction Torrent tracking websites have been around for a long time.
Introduction Tracker websites can be a great source to get free indie content. Introduction The main reason why most of the torrent users are always longing to be a part of a private tracker co Introduction Torrent sites - private or otherwise, are used by millions of people around the world. Introduction An extensive variety of torrents, multiple genres, and incredible download speed are some of the best Introduction Torrent websites are known for adding and hiding ads on their website to get more clicks that result Introduction Private torrent trackers are revered because of their functionality.
Introduction Audio News is one of the best kept secrets on the internet. Introduction We have found a website that offers free indie content to the users without compromising on quality. Seedbox What is a seedbox?
Why would I need to use one? Are seedboxes safe? What kinds of download speeds can you get with one? Are they expensive? Come check out the definitive list of the best seedboxes to learn the answers to these questions and find the right one for you today! Introduction After you have been torrenting for a while, there comes a time when you may be looking to up your gam Introduction When it comes time to find a seed box in order to up your torrenting game, it can be difficult to fig Introduction If you have spent much time researching seed boxes before, then you already know how much quality, pe Introduction With a name like Ultra Seed Box, hopes are high going into this seed box review.
TV Shows Torrent Sites Are you looking for the best of the best when it comes to downloading torrent files of your favoritepublic domain and free indie TV shows? On Torrent Sites, you will find a comprehensive list of the most popular torrent websites for free indie TV shows as well as plenty of the more obscure, invite-only torrent communities too.
If a TV torrent site is worth knowing about, you will be able to read a thorough review of it here. Come check out my list of the best torrent sites, and begin downloading your favorite free indie series today! Introduction Private torrent tracking sites are growing each year.
Introduction Being a part of a private torrent community is an honor for many. What is TorrentBytes? TorrentBytes is one of the oldest tracking websites in the world. Its large user base and a Anime Torrent Sites Are you looking for the best anime torrent sites on the web? Sick of being unable to find exactly the free indie movie or public domain show you are looking for on the more popular torrent websites that don't cater to indie anime specifically?
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