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Iran Iran is a largely hot, dry and barren country but the Zagros Mountains rise to 12, ft m and the highest peaks are permanently snow covered. The many great birds include the endemic Iranian Pleske's Ground-jay which can be seen in the Dasht-e-Kavir Desert in the northeast. The best time to look for birds is April-May. The 'flower fields' near Chelgerd with their vast swathes of wild Crown Imperials are famous amongst botanists as are the country's colourful Dionysias and irises, amongst a fine flora best viewed during the middle two weeks of April.
Tacumshin is a great wetland for shorebirds, including those from North America, and once there was an incredible record flock of 26 Buff-breasted Sandpipers there, on the 27th September , the same day as two Semipalmated Sandpipers, a White-rumped Sandpiper and an American Golden Plover!
Ballycotton is another famous place to look for shorebirds which have included a Long-toed Stint in and a Red-necked Stint in Many such rarities have landed on the island of Cape Clear, such as a Blue-winged Warbler in and Ruby-crowned Kinglet in Another hotspot for North American vagrants as is an island farther north called Inishbofin Eastern Kingbird On the nearby mainland are the vertical ft m high Cliffs of Moher where Atlantic Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills raise their young.
These cliffs lie next to The Burren, a huge limestone pavement beloved by botanists in search of rare and beautiful flowers such as Bloody Cranesbill, Burnet Rose and Columbine. The best time to seawatch is from mid-July to October, and the time to look for nearctic shorebirds and passerines is from mid-August to October with the shorebird season usually peaking in mid-September and the very best time for vagrant American passerines being the second week of October.
Ireland - Northern See Northern Ireland , below. The smart Masked Shrike is a regular spring migrant in Israel. Italy - Abruzzo National Park 'Marsican' Brown Bears, a chance of birds such as Rock Partridge and White-backed Woodpecker, and a superb selection of alpine flowers including many orchids. Jamaica This small tropical island supports a staggering 31 endemic bird species not including Jamaican Oriole which occurs only on Jamaica and the remote island of San Andres , many of which are widespread.
They include a quail-dove, two superb streamer-tailed hummingbirds, a tody, two parrots, two vireos, two thrushes, a euphonia, a warbler and a spindalis. The quail-dove is most likely to be seen, like several other endemics, along Ecclesdown Road in the John Crow Mountains, although the lizard-cuckoo and blackbird are most likely at Hardwar Gap in the Blue Mountains.
There are some spectacular butterflies too, not least the rarely reported endemic Giant Swallowtail Papilio homerus which with a wingspan of up to 15 cm is the largest swallowtail butterfly in the Americas. The best time to look for birds is February to early May, later for butterflies. Java See Indonesia - Java , above. Mammals include Nubian Ibex. Spring bird migration usually lasts from March to May and peaks from mid-March to early April which also happens to usually be the best time for most flowers including the national flower the Black Iris.
Actually there are five black Irises, as well as Blue, Purple and White ones, and other spectacular flowers include blue and lilac-pink Lupins. Kai Islands See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Kenya The best overall wildlife experience in the world and therefore A Top Ten Destination , thanks to the presence of so many of Africa's and the world's most spectacular mammals, birds and coral reef fish, the birds including vast flocks of flamingos, ostriches, African Fish-eagle, Secretary Bird, Saddle-billed Stork, Kori Bustard and numerous East African specialities such as Vulturine Guineafowl, Crab Plover, Sokoke Scops-owl, Somali Bee-eater, Golden-winged Sunbird, Golden-breasted Starling and Golden Pipit, so many easy-to-see birds it is possible to see over a hundred species in a day at several locations, well over in just two weeks and over in a month, along with over 60 species of mammal, all in some wonderful settings.
Komodo - Indonesia See Indonesia - Komodo , above. Korea - South See South Korea , below. Kuwait This tiny land of sand lies on a migrant flyway where the passage of birds usually peaks from mid-March to early May especially early April and in November and can be good enough at least as far as passerines are concerned during the spring to rival more famous destinations for observing migrating birds such as Eilat in Israel.
Unfortunately it is necessary to obtain permission well in advance to visit some of the best sites, something best organised by a local, and a lot of people shoot birds, particularly during spring and autumn. June to August is not a good time to visit, the summer being uncomfortably hot.
The unique Hypocolius in Kuwait in December by Spider. Laos In this impoverished country, the only landlocked one in South East Asia, many birds, especially large ones, and other animals, are hunted and, as a consequence, very shy. The best area is arguably Kemeri National Park although the forested dunes of Cape Kolka in the Baltic are the best location in spring to see passerine migrants such as Bluethroats and Golden Orioles, with divers and ducks offshore.
Peak birding time is around mid-May when it is also possible to see Ural Owl in adjacent and easily accessible Lithuania. Lesotho The tiny, landlocked, mountain Kingdom of Lesotho is a good place to look for the highland Drakensberg avian specialities of southern Africa.
The most accessible site in the region for these birds is Sani Pass which although technically in South Africa is a major route into Lesotho and a good place for Drakensberg Rockjumper, Gurney's Sugarbird and Drakensberg Siskin, as well as Grey-winged Francolin, Southern Bald Ibis, Cape Vulture, Lammergeier, Cape Eagle-owl, Ground Woodpecker, Sentinel Rock-thrush, Buff-streaked Chat, Barratt's Warbler, Bush Blackcap and Mountain Pipit, some of which can also be seen at Liqobong on the Mechachaneng Ridge where there is a Cape Vulture colony and other cliff-nesting birds such as Jackal Buzzard the most numerous raptors at high altitudes, probably due to the abundance of prey in the form of endemic Sloggett's Ice Rats , and at Mafika-Lisiu Pass in the Maluti Mountains, below which lies Bokong NR where there is an ossuary, an area of large slabs of flat rock used by Lammergeiers to drop and break large bones on.
Below Bokong look out for Malachite Sunbirds nectaring on red-hot pokers Kniphofia. Lesvos The Greek island of Lesvos is situated in the Aegean Sea to the east of mainland Greece, although it is actually next to the west coast of Turkey. It is a very popular destination with birders during the northern spring when large numbers of a wide variety of birds migrate through the island, including herons, Pallid Harriers, Eleonora's and Red-footed Falcons, Little Crakes, shorebirds including Collared Pratincoles, Whiskered and White-winged Black Terns, European Rollers, Red-throated Pipits, Collared Flycatchers, warblers and shrikes.
Leti See Indonesia - Lesser Sundas , above. Along the km Atlantic coastline are mangroves, sandbars and lagoons. Recent research suggests Liberian White-winged Greenbul may merely be an aberrant form of Icterine Greenbul. Wet summers usually last from April to November making birding difficult and dust-laden harmattan winds which often blow across the country from the Sahara between December and March don't help much either. Lithuania is easily accessible from Latvia — there are no border restrictions — and would make a great combination with that country.
The peak time to observe autumn migration along the Baltic Flyway is the first week of October. Up to , birds have been known to fly over the cape each day while at Curronian Spit National Park, another migration hot-spot, mainly for raptors and passerines, up to 1. The best places for waterbirds such as Dalmatian Pelicans and Pygmy Cormorants are the two huge lakes, Megali Prespa and Ohrid, in the southwest corner of the country.
Pelister National Park to the northeast, along with the Galicica Plateau and the Vardar Valley which runs across Macedonia are the top places for butterflies in a country where over species have been recorded including Apollo, Clouded Apollo, coppers, and lots of blues and fritillaries. The peak time for most butterflies is usually the second half of June which is also a good time to look for most birds.
Madagascar Nearly endemic birds and 12 shared only with the Comoros, some belonging to four endemic families; three mesites, five ground-rollers, four asities and 11 tetrakas, and some others including 11 couas, 17 vangas, a sandgrouse, two flufftails, an ibis, a jacana, a fish-eagle, a lovebird, three rock-thrushes, two fodies, two weavers and a wagtail, as well as over species of lemur including the beautiful sifakas, the loud Indri and the confiding Ring-tailed Lemur, all in some of the strangest habitats on the planet.
Madagascar Blue Vanga by Dubi Shapiro , one of many unique and stunning birds on the island of Madagascar. Madeira Two endemic breeding seabirds; Desertas Fea's Petrel and the very rare Zino's Petrel, as well as Bulwer's Petrel, Madeiran Band-rumped and White-faced Storm-petrels, and Barolo Shearwater, make Madeira a great place for seabirds and they can be seen very well on Zodiac boat trips during which there is also a chance of a wide range of cetaceans.
There are many Miombo woodland specialists and one endemic; Yellow-throated Apalis, as well as a fine range of mammals, not least African Elephant, Hippopotamus, Sable and Roan. Malaysia - Borneo See Borneo , above. Malaysia - Malay Peninsula A long list of fabulous South-East Asian birds, especially trogons, kingfishers, bee-eaters, barbets, broadbills, hornbills, pittas and leafbirds with a chance of Rail-babbler, primates such as Siamang and White-handed Gibbon, and even Malayan Tapir, in possibly the oldest lowland rainforest on Earth, at Taman Negara.
Maldives A great diversity of whales and dolphins with very large numbers of some dolphins, as well as over a thousand fish species including Whales Sharks and Manta Rays which can be seen while snorkeling, along with Green and Hawksbill Turtles. Mali This large, mainly flat, land-locked country is most famous in wildlife circles for the Niger floodplain which lies in the middle of the country between the historic cities of Djenne and Timbuktu.
The extent of the flood varies considerably from year to year but when it is very wet it is a paradise for birds, being a very important breeding area for African waterbirds and wintering ground for migrant Palearctic waterbirds which have included estimates of half a million Garganeys, , Northern Pintails, , Ruffs and 20, Glossy Ibises.
The richest area in such years is often Lac Debo near Mopti. In the south the dry season normally lasts from November to April and February is the best time to be in the Niger floodplain because the birds are concentrated on the remaining water.
Mallorca The largest Balearic Island has a wide range of habitats ranging from one of the largest freshwater marshes in the Mediterranean to mountains that rise to over m. Amongst over 30 endemic plants are a relic from the ice age, Hypericum balearicum, and orchids like Bug and Loose-flowered. Spring migration usually peaks in mid-April, autumn passage in mid-October. Manitoba - Canada See Canada - Manitoba , above.
Mariana Islands See Micronesia , below. However, most visiting birders are after adding several species that have restricted ranges in the Western Palearctic WP to their WP lists. Two of the best wadis are north of the settlement of Ouadane, a green oasis in the otherwise barren landscape to the east of the town of Atar where it is possible to arrange the required 4WD with driver. Most of the surviving endemic birds are endangered too, especially the Pink Pigeon, the kestrel and the Echo Parakeet, while the other five endemics are all declining; a cuckooshrike, a bulbul, a rare white-eye, a relatively 'common' white-eye and a fody.
Other birds present on the island include Mascarene Swiftlet, Mascarene Martin, the rare Mascarene Paradise-flycatcher which also occurs on Reunion and several introduced species. From the north coast it is possible to telescope Gunner's Quoin Island although it is better to hire a boat to visit the island and the surrounding waters in order to see Red-tailed and White-tailed Tropicbirds, and Masked Booby. The heavily degraded island of Rodrigues supports two endemic landbirds; a warbler and a fody, both of which are rare in some high vegetated gulleys, as well as Rodrigues Golden Flying Fox.
Other landbirds present there include Mascarene Paradise-flycatcher, while seawatching near dusk from the the St. Etienne rivermouth area may reveal Barau's and Mascarene Petrels, and Tropical Shearwaters, massing before flying inland to their nesting sites high among the volcanic peaks. The best time to visit these islands is October-November.
Mauritius Fody by Dubi Shapiro. Mayotte See See Comoros and Mayotte , above. Baja's not all about whales. The birds include Red-billed Tropicbirds. Image by Dave Barnes. Mexico - El Triunfo The cloud forest in this reserve in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas is one of the few accessible sites in Chiapas and neighbouring Guatemala where Horned Guan occurs, and this is also a good place to see other range-restricted highland specialities such as Highland Guan, White-breasted Hawk, Fulvous Owl, Resplendent Quetzal the subspecies with the longest tail , Blue-throated Motmot, Green-throated Mountain-gem, Emerald-chinned Hummingbird, Black-throated Jay, Blue-crowned Chlorophonia and Hooded Grosbeak.
The best time to visit is March when Horned Guans are usually calling. It is only possible to see this bird at remote El Triunfo in southern Mexico or in adjacent Guatemala. Mexico - Oaxaca There are probably more bird species in Oaxaca than any other Mexican state; nearly , and about a hundred of these are regional endemics. Other great birds around the city include Grey Silky-flycatcher and Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo, with a chance of Aztec Thrush.
The endemic Giant Wren a real giant! The best time to look for birds is January to April. Blue, blue, electric blue, that's the colour of a Rose-bellied or Rosita's Bunting. The superb image of this one was captured in the Tapanatepec Foothills of Oaxaca, Mexico, by Nigel Voaden , the same place the very colourful Orange-breasted Bunting occurs, both species being endemic to Mexico.
At the coast, on the Gulf of California, rocky islets viewable with telescopes from Mazatlan support breeding Red-billed Tropicbirds and Blue-footed Boobies. Further south along the Pacific coast lies the small holiday resort of San Blas where it is possible to see species in a week, less than a thousand miles south of the U. Humpback Whales spend the northern winter in Banderas Bay, Puerto Vallarta, where on organised whale-watching trips it is also possible to see Bottlenose and Spotted Dolphins.
Not much further south is the small state of Colima which together with parts of neighbouring Jalisco supports about 40 endemics including San Blas Jay, Aztec Thrush, Red Warbler and Orange-breasted Bunting, as well as Grey Silky-flycatcher, Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo, many warblers including Colima and Golden-browed, and Red-breasted Chat.
The smoking Volcan de Fuego is one of the best sites, although the vast flocks of Yellow-headed Blackbirds winter on the Ciudad Guzman Marshes. At the coast, boat trips can be arranged out of Manzanillo to a big rock called Piedra Blanca where Red-billed Tropicbirds breed. The best time to bird Western Mexico is January-February.
Micronesia About fifty endemic birds including Palau 13 and the Northern Marianas 8 with 21 on the islands of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap in actual Micronesia, including fruit-doves, ground-doves, kingfishers, monarchs and white-eyes, along with seabirds such as Red-tailed and White-tailed Tropicbirds, Red-footed Booby and Common White Tern, and some of the best places in the world to snorkel or scuba-dive with Manta Rays.
Republic of Moldova A small country near the Danube Delta between Romania and Ukraine with woods, forests, farmland, orchards, vineyards, river valleys and some fine wetlands. It is possible to see about species in a week. Few people visit but one tour company does, Oriole Birding, in late June. Between the mountains lies Lake Skadar, the largest freshwater lake in Europe, westernmost nesting site of Dalmatian Pelicans and home to thousands of Pygmy Cormorants as well as Whiskered Terns.
Birding is best April-May but the later the better for a chance of Olive-tree Warbler. Morotai See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Mozambique African Pitta, Green-headed Oriole and Miombo woodland specialities, as well as some mammals, mostly reintroduced after a slaughter, and a long coast with Crab Plovers, Manta Rays, Whale Sharks and numerous colourful other fish on some of the most pristine coral reefs in the world. Down south it is possible to see Spoon-billed Sandpipers on their wintering grounds; most of the remaining population perhaps less than probably winters on the Myanmar coast.
The best time to search for pittas is mid-March to mid-April when they are normally at their most vocal but seeing them will involve a organising a mini camping expedition from the coastal town on Myiek. Back in Yangon there is a roost of half a million or so Asian Wrinkle-lipped Bats at the spectacular Shwedagon Pagoda. The best time for most birds 'up north' is November to March. This unique species occurs only in Namibia and Angola where this image was captured at Renato Grade.
Netherlands Tens of thousands of geese, with a good chance of Lesser White-fronted, as well as swans and Smews in winter, and hundreds of thousands of shorebirds during late summer. New Caledonia Nearly 20 mainland endemic birds include some of the strangest birds in the world not least Kagu, Cloven-feathered Dove and a tool-using crow.
The strange Cloven-feathered Dove occurs only on the island of New Caledonia where this fine image was taken by Lars Petersson. Newfoundland - Canada See Canada - Newfoundland , above. New Zealand Six endemic bird families; five kiwis, three parrots, three wrens, three mohouas, four wattlebirds and Stitchbird, and 54 endemic bird species, also including Blue Duck, Black Stilt, Wrybill, Tui, Takahe and Weka, as well as the breeding endemic, New Zealand Storm-petrel, and the islands are just as famous for Sperm Whales and a superb selection of seabirds such as Wandering, Royal and several other albatrosses, petrels, shearwaters and White-faced Storm-petrel, many of which can be seen at close range on boat trips.
Nicaragua Although the largest country in Central America has long been overshadowed by its southern neighbour Costa Rica as far as birding goes it still has swathes of good forest, especially in the Caribbean lowlands where the Indio Maiz Reserve and Rio Indio Lodge are situated. The rainy season normally runs from May to November when hurricanes are also possible.
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland's largest seabird colony is on Rathlin Island off the north coast where there is a Seabird Centre, accessible by boat from Ballycastle. On the mainland nearby is the famous Giant's Causeway where there are about 40, hexagonal basalt columns up to 1. There is a Bird Observatory on Copeland Island, accessible, with prior permission, by boat from Donaghadee, where rare North American birds recorded include a Red Fox-sparrow in The largest sea lough in the British Isles, Strangford Lough, is of international importance to wildfowl 25, and waders 50, during the winter, including Pale-bellied Brent Geese, the numbers of which usually peak at about 12, in October.
Breeding species include Arctic Tern. Inland is the largest freshwater lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, which with Lough Beg and associated wetlands is another important wetland in winter when the enormous rafts of birds include the largest concentrations of diving ducks in Britain and Ireland. Bird numbers may reach up to ,, including six per cent of the world's Whooper Swans and internationally significant numbers of Bewick's Tundra Swans.
Nunavut - Canada See Canada - Nunavut , above. Oaxaca - Mexico See Mexico - Oaxaca , above. Obi See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Pakistan Pakistan would surely be a popular birding destination without so many mainly political and religious troubles, and what a country to go birding in, especially the north where the Pamirs, Hindu Kush, Himalayas and Karakoram Ranges meet and numerous spectacular mountains rise to m 28, ft at K2, the second highest mountain on Earth, just m ft lower than Everest.
A good place to look for these birds is the scenic Kaghan Valley which runs north from the town of Balakot, north of Abbottabad. In the deserts of the southwest there seven species of sandgrouse; Black-bellied, Chestnut-bellied, Crowned, Lichtenstein's, Painted, Pin-tailed and Spotted. The best time to visit the north is between May and September, early June for the majority of breeding species. It is hot all year round in the centre and south, especially in June and July. Palau See Micronesia , above.
Panama Nearly a thousand bird species including nine endemics, 74 species shared with Costa Rica and 27 species shared with Colombia, a multitude of birds that includes Harpy Eagle, many hummingbirds, Resplendent Quetzal, Sapayoa, Black-crowned Pittasoma, Black-tipped, Blue, Turquoise and Yellow-billed Cotingas, Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher, Golden-browed and Yellow-collared Chlorophonias, and Wrenthtrush, with a rich offshore life too where there are Manta Rays and turtle cleaning stations. This beauty occurs only in Panama and Costa Rica.
Papua New Guinea Nearly birds are endemic to the main island of New Guinea and its offshore islands including 68 that are endemic to West Papua the western half of the island and that are endemic to Papua New Guinea the eastern half although only 33 of those are endemic to the mainland. Offshore there is just as much crazy variety thanks to the fishes and other creatures living on some of the richest coral reefs on the planet. New Guinea is home to so much more than birds-of-paradise.
The widespread Rufous-bellied Kookaburra for example is one of numerous spectacular endemics. Both males and females have massive white bills but males have blue tails and females rufous. This male was captured by Nigel Voaden. The best time to visit Paraguay is mid-September to the end of October. Peleng See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. The best time to look for birds is June-July. Peru - Southern including Manu The richest region for birds on Earth with a tenth of the world's species, about a thousand, including macaws and parrots visiting clay licks, hummingbirds, quetzals, jacamars, toucans, cotingas including Andean Cock-of-the-rock, manakins and multicoloured tanagers, as well as Giant Otters and monkeys, all in some of the most pristine habitats left on Earth.
Marvellous Spatuletail by Ian Merrill, arguably the world's most spectacular hummingbird, found only in a few places in Northern Peru. Philippines Over endemic birds in a country archipelago slightly smaller than the British Isles, including Palawan Peacock-pheasant, Philippine Monkey-eating Eagle, Philippine Trogon, 11 kingfishers, 11 hornbills, two broadbills, three pittas, four rhabdornises a unique genus in the starling family , 13 sunbirds and 15 flowerpeckers,a s well as Philippine Tarsier, and the chance to swim with Dugongs, Manta Rays, Whale Sharks and numerous coral reef fish.
Poland Ancient lowland forest with woodpeckers and bison, and the largest inland wetland left in Europe where White-winged Terns and Aquatic Warblers nest. Polynesia Over 35 endemic birds including the unique Tuamotu Sandpiper, as well as lorikeets, fruit-doves, kingfishers, monarchs and reed-warblers, as well as Bristle-thighed Curlew, lots of seabirds, including Polynesian Storm-petrel, and Common and Little White Terns, in true tropical paradises, from low-lying atolls to high volcanic islands.
Puerto Rico This small island supports an endemic monotypic bird family Puerto Rican Tanager and 15 other endemic birds; a nightjar, two hummingbirds, a lizard-cuckoo, a tody, a woodpecker, a parrot, a vireo, a euphonia, an oriole, a blackbird, two warblers, a spindalis and a bullfinch, as well as two species shared with the Virgin Islands only; Puerto Rican Screech-owl and Puerto Rican Flycatcher. The parrot is very rare and unlikely to be seen even where most of the wild and released birds are, in the Caribbean National Forest El Yunque in the Sierra de Luquillo, particularly at Rio Abajo.
Other Caribbean endemics include two more hummingbirds and Eastern Red-legged Thrush while other spectacular species present include White-tailed Tropicbird, Magnificent Frigatebird and wintering warblers from North America such as Prairie. It is possible to see all of the endemics except the parrot in a few days hence many birders combine a trip to this island with the Dominican Republic.
Other natural wonders include the karst country of the northwest where there are many similar sized and shaped ft 30 m high hillocks or mogotes; the Rio Camuy Caves, also in the northwest, one of the largest cave systems on the planet covering acres ha ; and Mosquito Bay on the island of Vieques which at night all year round glows blue-green thanks to the presence of millions of microscopic phosphorescent dinoflagellates, best experienced while swimming on a cloudy moonless night.
The best time to look for birds is March-April. Quebec - Canada See Canada - Quebec , above. Republic of North Macedonia See Macedonia , above. Reunion See Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues , above. Rodrigues See Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues , above. Romania Waterbirds galore in the Danube Delta and along the rest of the Black Sea coast, during summer and on migration, including pelicans and Pygmy Cormorants, with Wallcreepers and Brown Bears in the Carpathian Mountains.
Russia - Kamchatka, and the Kuril and Commander Islands Some of the world's most spectacular seabird colonies, with Horned and Tufted Puffins, and Crested, Parakeet and Whiskered Auklets, other spectacular birds such as Laysan Albatross and Steller's Sea-eagle, numerous fur seals and sealions, forming one of the greatest concentrations of marine mammals on Earth, Brown Bears and the chance of Blue, Killer and Sperm Whales.
Rwanda Read Gorillas in the Mist , the wonderful book by Dian Fossey who carried out most of her research here, try to get some sleep, meet the rangers in the morning, join a small group of fellow trekkers and head up the switchback trails through the lush, damp, sometimes misty, forest. One to five hours later you may meet some Mountain Gorillas and the first to emerge from the undergrowth is often the magnificent silverback, and seeing him for the first time and watching him and his family for the allotted hour, just a few paces away, may well turn out to be your best wildlife experience ever.
Sometimes even fanatical birders have to admit the 'bird-of-the-day' is a mammal. St Lucia This Caribbean island is just 43 km 27 miles long and 23 km 14 miles wide. Its forested slopes support the richest avifauna in the Lesser Antilles including four endemic bird species; a parrot, an oriole, a warbler and a black finch, with three more possibles; the island forms of Rufous Nightjar, House Wren and Lesser Antillean Pewee. On boat trips off Soufriere, Fraser's, Spinner and Pantropical Spotted Dolphins are possible and also offshore there are many coral reef fishes, and Green and Hawksbill Turtles.
The best time to look for birds is February-April. Samoan Moorhen is probably extinct. To see the rare white-eye it is necessary to hike high up Mount Silisili from the village of A'opo on the island of Savai'i. All of the other endemics occur here too.
The best time to look for the endemics is July to September. Image by Simon Colenutt. Sangihe See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Some taxonomists believe the island forms of Lemon Dove and Chestnut-winged Starling are also endemic, bringing the total for the island to The tricky ones to see are the white-eye and the thrush and it is necessary to travel by boat to the south of the island to look for these. Other species present on Principe include the dryas race of Blue-breasted Kingfisher and Grey Parrot, both of which are still relatively 'common', as well as a possible new species of scops-owl.
Boat trips can be arranged to look for seabirds on offshore islets and volcanic plugs, including White-tailed Tropicbird and Brown Noddy. The best time to visit the islands for birds is July-August. Other wildlife includes the unique endemic cave salamanders with different species in separate mountain ranges, about 35 species of dragonfly including the endemic Island Bluetail, Copper Demoiselle, and Violet Dropwing, and 25 orchids.
The best time for orchids is early April, for dragonflies early June and for birds late April - early May when migrants pass through. A superb image of flying Greater Flamingoes by Spider. Saskatchewan - Canada See Canada - Saskatchewan , above. Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is on a migratory flyway and serves as an important resting and refueling stopover for birds moving between Europe, Asia and Africa. In the east spring migration occurs between mid-February and mid-May usually peaking in April and autumn migration occurs between mid-August and early November but is less heavy than the spring migration.
The only one missing is Yemen Radde's Accentor which is endemic to Yemen. All 15 can be seen in the Abha area of the Asif mountains, connected by air to both Jeddah and Riyadh. Scotland - Outer Hebrides Corn Crake, Golden and White-tailed Eagles, Hen Harrier, nesting shorebirds and a chance of Otter on some wild islands which are also famous for the many rare British birds that appear there, especially on the island of Barra.
Scotland - Shetland Some of the world's most spectacular seabird cliffs, the best place in Britain for nesting Red-necked Phalaropes, other nesting shorebirds, Great Skuas, Otters and a chance of Killer Whales. The exquisite Red-necked Phalarope by Lars Petersson. June is the best time to go but prepare to meet millions of midges. Seram See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Serbia This small country about the size of Portugal is mainly flat north of the capital Belgrade where large rivers including the Danube flow slowly across the Pannonian Plain while to the south there are hills and mountains.
In gorges in the west of the country there are about pairs of Eurasian Griffons Tresnjica Gorge NR is the nearest colony to Belgrade and can be visited within a day. However, perhaps the most famous site for birds in Serbia is the town of Kikinda where in some winters over Long-eared Owls roost! During the winter tens of thousands of geese overwinter, twice as many when the Danube area is frozen solid, mostly Greylag and Greater White-fronted Geese half of them at the Labudovo okno Ramsar site at the Danube with the odd Lesser White-fronted and Red-breasted Geese.
Seychelles Twelve endemic birds; a blue-pigeon, a swiftlet, a scops-owl, a kestrel, a parrot Praslin and Curieuse , a paradise-flycatcher mainly La Digue and Denis , a warbler, a bulbul, a white-eye Mahe and Conception , a magpie-robin, a sunbird and a fody, some of which are very rare and the subject of long-standing captive-breeding, release and introduction projects, as well as Common White Terns, some large seabird colonies with frigatebirds, tropicbirds and Sooty Terns, and stunning coral reefs.
Seychelles Blue-pigeon, one of several endemic landbirds on the Seychelles, by Brian Field. Shetland - Scotland See Scotland - Shetland , above. Sichuan - China See China - Sichuan , above. The island also supports the resident endemic whitakeri race of Rock Partridge and a distinctive form of Long-tailed Tit. During the second half of April it is possible to see a wide variety of passage migrant passerines especially on east coast headlands where migrant hot-spots include Capo Murro di Porco where the garrigue-covered cape provides refuge for birds such as Collared Flycatchers.
Common birds include Spotless Starling. The superb Egyptian Plover by Dubi Shapiro. Singapore Singapore is an island city and country, the second most densely populated behind Monaco on the planet and yet it is possible to see some very good birds in this metropolis. Changi International Airport is a massive transit point for people travelling between Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Australasia and any birders with more than a couple of hours to spare may wish to consider visiting Pasir Ris Park and the Botanic Gardens.
The botanic gardens are usually very busy with people but it is still possible to see birds such as Red-legged Crake, Stork-billed Kingfisher and Lineated Barbet, as well as Yellow Bittern, Pink-necked Green-pigeon and Crimson Sunbird. In order to leave the airport during transit passengers will need i to request a landing card on-board and present it to immigration on arrival, and ii some Singaporean dollars to pay for taxis, trains and so on. Slovenia Slovenia is a small, relatively unspoiled country lying where the Alps meet the Mediterranean with an array of natural wonders including the 21 km 13 miles of passages, galleries and halls in the karst limestone Postojna Cave where in a small pool live pink Olms Proteus anguinus , cave salamanders endemic to the Dalmatian coast.
The alpine mountain slopes and steep-sided valleys thick with pine forests also support a rich flora of over species, many of which are restricted to the Julian Alps and include Edelweiss, Illyrian Gladiolus and Transylvanian Orchid.
June is the best time to look for birds, flowers and some of the butterflies recorded in the country such as Common Glider and Spotted Fritillary. In the southern Dinaric Alps region it is possible to visit specially designed photography hides to view and photograph Brown Bears, most likely in May.
Socotra This island in the Arabian Sea off the Horn of Africa supports some superb Dragon Tree forests in spectacular scenery where 43 bird species are known to breed, ten of which are endemic; a scops-owl, a buzzard, a warbler, a cisticola, a starling, a sunbird, two sparrows, a grosbeak and a bunting Dixcem Plateau only. Solomon Islands There are more restricted-range bird species, that is species with ranges of less than 50, square kilometres, in the Solomon Islands than anywhere else on Earth.
To stand a chance of seeing these and all the endemics, visitors will need to take many internal flights and be prepared to sail several times in order to visit Guadalcanal where the capital Honiara is situated and there are about ten single-island endemics including a rail and a moustached Kingfisher, the first male of which was controversially 'collected' in , Rennell about eight endemics including a parrot and a shrikebill , Makira 16 , Malaita 8 , Santa Isabel an endemic rail as well as several species shared only with Bougainville , the New Georgia Islands including Kolombangara 11 including the flightless Roviana Rail , and the Santa Cruz Islands at the southeastern end of the long archipelago seven including Nendo Shrikebill.
As well as birds, the Arnavon Islands to the northwest of Santa Isabel support one of the most important rookeries in the west Pacific for Hawksbill Turtle and coral reefs surrounding many smaller islands are rich in marine life. The best time to look for birds is July to September. Like the rest of the birds and other wildlife, especially those which live in the woods and forests, many are likely to be suffering heavy losses since one environmental group warned, in , that Somalia would be a country without trees if they were cut down at the then rate.
The best area for cranes is usually Cheorwon where the vast majority forage in the Civilian Control Zone, an area used for farming only and accessible only with local guides or on local organized tours since it is next to the completely undeveloped Demilitarized Zone on the border with North Korea. Sri Lanka Over 30 endemic birds and over 30 shared only with Southern India, including a junglefowl, a frogmouth, two malkohas, a trogon, two flameback woodpeckers, a blue magpie, a scimitar-babbler, two thrushes and a leafbird, some fabulous wintering birds hard to see elsewhere such as Indian Pitta, Pied Thrush, Indian Blue Robin and Kashmir Flycatcher, Leopards, lorises, monkeys and a good chance of 'Pygmy' Blue Whale, all based on an island just km miles by km miles.
Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand and Australia Millions of marine birds and mammals including King and endemic Royal Penguins, Wandering and Light-mantled Albatrosses, and elephant and fur seals, as well as endemic ducks, shags and snipes on the Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes and Bounty Islands. Sula Islands See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Sulawesi's satellites See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Sumatra See Indonesia - Sumatra , above.
Suriname The largest known lek of gorgeous Guianan Cock-of-the-rocks in the world, the easiest place to see Grey-winged Trumpeters, lots of other spectacular birds such as Scarlet Ibis, Crimson and Ruby Topazes, Guianan Red Cotinga, Capuchinbird and Blue-backed Tanager, and monkeys and sloths in a small, sparsely-populated country with a lot of its vast forests remaining. Conifers dominate the north but to the south and east there are mixed forests with beech, birch and oak.
Most people in search of owls and bears visit Finland where Wolverine and Red-flanked Bluetail are also possible but if it's Cranes visitors are after then Sweden is the place to go. During the first half of April 20, or so gather at Lake Hornborga Hornborgasjon a few hours from Stockholm and in early September the same number come together at Bergslagen, along with up to 20, Taiga Bean Geese. This is also a good time to see Elk Moose because the bulls have a full rack of antlers ready for the autumn rut.
Each autumn about million birds migrate from Scandinavia to Europe and Africa, and four million are recorded annually at Falsterbo , a migration bottleneck at the southern tip of Sweden, a particularly good place to watch migration in action, involving, on good days, usually when a southwest wind blows, big numbers of raptors, Common Wood Pigeons and Blue Tits.
The best time to be at Falsterbo is from late August to October. It is also possible to see Brown Bears in Sweden, at night in July, from luxurious purpose-built hides. The large limestone island of Gotland is a favourite summer holiday destination amongst the Swedish people but it remains remarkably unspoilt.
Taiwan This small, mountainous, subtropical island, less than km miles long and km miles wide, in the South China Sea, supports 30 endemic bird species and rising, as taxonomists continue to split island forms of widespread species into full species and on Taiwan there are over 50 more endemic subspecies! Other notables are headlined by the beautiful Fairy Pitta in the western lowlands but they also include Malay Night-heron which like the pitta is easier to see on Taiwan than anywhere else, even in Taipei Botanical Gardens , Chinese Egret, Black-faced Spoonbill hundreds winter in the lowland wetlands of the southwest and many stay on until April and Japanese Paradise-flycatcher most likely on the island of Lanyu.
The peak time to visit is the second half of April when newly-arrived Fairy Pittas are most likely to be located although rain and mist are to be expected at this time of the year. July is the peak time to try and see the endangered Chinese Crested Tern in the Matsu Archipelago accessible by air from Taipei. Due to the rapidly increasing popularity of bird photography across Asia, be prepared to see some birds in zoo-like conditions, at photographers' 'stake-outs' often complete with screens and many photographers.
Good birding sites include Iskender Kul, a large alpine lake at m ft north of the capital Dushanbe in the Fann mountain range. Farther afield the Pamirs are home to Markhor Darwaz Mountains near border with Afghanistan , Marco Polo Sheep, Ibex, Urial Sheep and Snow Leopard which is most likely to be seen during the winter when they venture lower down, but all large animals are very shy due to hunting.
Talaud See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Taliabu See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Tanzania - Northern The greatest diversity and numbers of large mammals on Earth make this A Top Ten Destination , with over a million Blue Wildebeest, over a quarter of a million Thomson's Gazelles and about , Burchell's Zebras, as well as their predators, including Lion, Leopard, Cheetah, Spotted Hyaena and, possibly, African Wild Dog, at the right time of year, and lots of iconic open-country African birds, in landscapes to match, not least the Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater.
Tanzania - Southern Many mammals including African Wild Dogs in some of the most extensive wildest places left on Earth. There are 35 endemic bird species on mainland Tanzania, with four more on Pemba Island. Tasmania See Australia - Southeastern , above. Thailand - Northern Northern Thailand is very different from the rest of the country.
Some birds, especially shy, skulking, ground-dwelling, forest birds are much easier to see than they once were thanks to the popularity of bird photography in East Asia; the photographers have set up 'feeding stations' where mealworms are provided. December to March is the best time to visit, when resident species are joined by wintering birds from northeast Asia. Thailand - Southern Spectacular localized birds such as Siamese Fireback, Coral-billed Ground-cuckoo, Nicobar Pigeon, Malay Banded Pitta and Rail-babbler, wintering shorebirds, not least Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Spotted Greenshank, and a long list of fabulous South-East Asian birds including trogons, kingfishers, bee-eaters, barbets, broadbills, pittas, hornbills, leafbirds, babblers and sunbirds, as well as the chance of White-handed Gibbon.
There are nine birds endemic to this island; a boobook, two honeyeaters, a friarbird, a myzomela, a bushbird, a white-eye, a flycatcher and a flowerpecker, and a lot more shared with neighbouring islands such as Alor, Rote and Wetar including a stubtail, a blue-flycatcher, a bushchat and a thrush.
It is usually possible to see most endemics and near-endemics in West Timor Indonesia but Timor Green-pigeon and Iris Lorikeet are more likely to be seen in the east because they are so heavily hunted in the west, and the endemic race of Pheasant Coucal occurs only in East Timor. Tonga Tonga is one of the few places in the world where it is possible to swim with Humpback Whales. Several operators run carefully organized tours within the Vava'u Islands when the whales are usually present from mid-July to late October, during the dry season.
To see the other endemic bird, Tongan Niuafoou Scrubfowl, it is necessary to fly to the northernmost island of all, Nuiafo'ou, where the birds can be seen at communal nesting grounds. Neither of the two endemic birds occur on the main island, Tongatapu, but birds such as Many-coloured Fruit-dove, Polynesian Wattled Honeyeater, Polynesian Triller and Polynesian Starling can be seen in and near the capital Nuku'alofa. From the main island it is possible to travel by ferry to the island of 'Eua where seabirds such as White-tailed Tropicbirds, Common White Terns and Grey Noddies nest.
Trinidad and Tobago Some fine birds including the endemic Trinidad Piping-guan and Trinidad Motmot, the near-endemic White-tailed Sabrewing, and more widespread species such as Red-billed Tropicbird, Magnificent Frigatebird, a large roost of Scarlet Ibises, a cave colony of Oilbirds, Ruby Topaz and Bearded Bellbird, as well as nesting turtles and coral reef fish. Turkey Some of the most exciting birding in the Western Palearctic, but Turkey is a huge country and to see all of its best birds it would be necessary to travel hundreds of miles, so most visitors opt to cover certain areas.
The Bosphorus, especially in September, is a great place to watch the visible migration of tens of thousands of raptors including Lesser Spotted Eagles and Levant Sparrowhawks, along with huge numbers of White Storks and some Black Storks, on their way from Eurasia to Africa. The narrow strait between Europe and Asia is also regularly traversed by Yelkouan Balearic Shearwaters. Caspian Snowcock and Caucasian Grouse occur in the far northeast near Sivrikaya and to the south it is possible to see Grey-necked Bunting and Mongolian Finch at Dogubeyazit.
The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office usually advise against travelling to areas near the border with Syria and parts of southeast Turkey , a dangerous region and Western Palearctic birding hotspot which includes the Birecik area.
The best time to look for most birds in Turkey is May. It supports 58 native breeding birds including important colonies of gulls, terns and other seabirds mainly April to July such as White-tailed Tropicbird, Magnificent Frigatebird and Brown Noddy. Humpback Whales migrate south through the islands in January to March, on their way to the Silver Bank, north of the Dominican Republic. To evaluate the effects of habitat type on stable isotope values and FA mass percentages, we used linear mixed-effect models LMMs fitted with the nlme package Pinheiro et al.
Julian date was collinear with site and was not included in any modelling. All LMMs had site as a random effect. To evaluate the effects of habitat type on prey items consumed and FA profiles, we used distance-based redundancy analyses dbRDAs fitted with the vegan package Oksanen et al.
Refer to Supplementary Material for model selection and model summaries. To evaluate dietary differences in Bank Swallows, we used juvenile tail feathers for stable isotopes, juvenile blood plasma for FAs and both adult and juvenile faecal matter for DNA metabarcoding. We captured Bank Swallows in and in We sampled tail feathers from 47 juveniles in and juveniles in An additional 41 juveniles were sampled for the blood in and 59 juveniles in We opportunistically collected faecal matter and analysed those of 93 adults and 17 juveniles in and 50 adults and 7 juveniles in Bayesian ellipses showed that lakeshore juveniles were isotopically different and had no overlap with inland juveniles Fig.
Faecal DNA metabarcoding identified 12 orders and 77 families in adult and juvenile Bank Swallow faecal samples. The orders Psocodea lice , Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes mites were removed as they were found in few samples and likely not foraged insects. Faecal samples were separated into two groups in ordination space, such that lakeshore birds differed from all other birds in terms of insect prey groups orders and aquatic dipteran families; Supplementary Fig.
Chironomidae Chir were associated with the majority of lakeshore birds, while terrestrial dipterans T. Dipt , Coleoptera Cole , Anthomyiidae Anth and Hemiptera Hemi were associated with inland birds, but lakeshore birds in were more variable in terms of the prey they consumed. FA profiles of juvenile blood plasma were separated in ordination space by habitat and year, though a group of lakeshore juveniles overlapped with inland juveniles see Supplementary Fig.
The majority of FAs were clustered in the middle of the ordination, indicating no association to group. Lakeshore juveniles were associated with n7 vaccenic acid and n3 EPA, while inland juveniles were associated with n9 oleic acid and n6 arachidonic acid ARA. We assessed diet quality by evaluating mean percentages of omega-3 and -6 FAs. Using a variety of endogenous molecular markers, our study clearly separated the diet of Bank Swallows nesting at inland aggregate mining pits from those nesting at lakeshore sites.
In particular, we found that lakeshore birds consumed more aquatic emergent insects compared with birds inhabiting inland areas as indicated by stable isotope analysis of feathers and faecal DNA metabarcoding. Aquatic emergent insects are vectors of both nutrients e. Dietary differences were also manifested in plasma PUFA profiles of Bank Swallows, such that lakeshore birds consuming chironomids clearly had higher levels of omega-3 EPA.
In addition, our three markers reveal yearly differences such that birds had a more aquatic-based diet than birds. Yearly, differences were particularly pronounced in lakeshore birds suggesting that they may profit from years of productive chironomid emergences. Establishing the presence of an ecological trap requires a clear demonstration that such sites are preferred and act as population sink Battin, Aggregate pits in this sense may not be ecological traps per se Burke et al.
However, we have demonstrated that there is likely a nutritional cost related to diets provisioned to nestlings at inland versus lakeshore sites. In this sense, we prefer the term nutritional trap. The quantity of available aerial insects fuels nestling growth, but there is evidence that diet quality is more important than quantity in supporting healthier individuals Quinney et al.
In New Brunswick, three swallow species did not increase nestling survival or mass with increasing insect abundance Imlay et al. Twining et al. A recent study on Bank Swallows in our study region reported that aggregate pits and lakeshore colonies had no differences in breeding success and birds in pits had fewer ectoparasites Burke et al.
Diet was predominantly composed of aerial insects from the Diptera and Coleoptera orders. As expected, this technique indicated that Bank Swallows nesting at lakeshore sites foraged more on chironomids, especially in By contrast, inland birds fed more on terrestrial dipterans, coleopterans, root-maggot flies Anthomyiidae and hemipterans. Proximity to the lakeshore provides swallows the opportunity to profit from productive aquatic insect emergences. The availability of emergent insects inland, however, is likely dependent on wind conditions and direction during any given period.
FA profiles of juvenile Bank Swallows showed differences between those raised at lakeshore and inland sites as well as between years. Lakeshore juveniles had more n7 vaccenic acid and n3 EPA in blood plasma, while inland birds had more n9 oleic acid and n6 ARA in blood plasma. We found strong support that lakeshore juvenile birds acquired a higher-quality diet compared with inland birds, as indicated by plasma omega-3 EPA.
The percent composition of FAs depends on tissue Twining et al. The relative percent of plasma EPA in swallow chicks was double at lakeshore sites compared with inland sites. Our results are comparable with those of great tits Parus major that had switched winter feeder diets to summer insect diets Andersson et al.
Plasma EPA we found for lakeshore Bank Swallows was generally higher than values reported for other passerines Isaksson et al. By feeding on aquatic emergent insects, terrestrial consumers can acquire higher amounts of PUFAs Hixson et al. Borisova et al. Alternatively, DHA is more abundant in brain tissues than other tissues and may simply not be reflected in Bank Swallow blood plasma Twining et al.
Understanding the potential benefits of omega-3 FAs to songbirds is a relatively new area of research that requires further investigation. In addition to promoting nestling growth and fledging success, avian studies have yet to explore the advantages of high EPA and DHA as reported in humans e.
Great tits in Sweden had higher omega-3 FAs in winter in rural habitats than urban habitats, while urban habitats had more ARA Andersson et al. Andersson et al. Bank Swallows at our inland sites had higher plasma oleic acid and lower plasma vaccenic acid than lakeshore birds. Chironomids in Siberian lakes contain high levels of oleic and vaccenic acids but, as selective feeders, chironomid FA profiles are dependent on species-specific preferences for bacterial food or other food items such as algae or diatoms Makhutova et al.
Oleic acid levels can vary greatly across species but have been found to be high in several terrestrial insects Womeni et al. A recent analysis of mayfly emergence flights using radar in the western Lake Erie basin and waterways estimated tons of mayfly biomass from a single emergence event Stepanian et al.
Likewise, chironomids have steeply declined since Soster et al. We advocate formal consideration of nutrition in the conservation and management of species. Our study shows the importance of conserving high-quality lakeshore habitats and supporting productive aquatic insect emergences. Likewise, management of aquatic systems should include the mitigation of pollutants that can negatively affect the aquatic fauna and toxic compounds that can similarly transfer from aquatic to terrestrial systems.
The preservation of aquatic systems will support not only riparian specialists such as Bank Swallows but also other insectivorous songbirds using the same riparian habitat Blancher and McNicol, ; Brown et al. Understanding foraging ranges of Bank Swallows from inland and lakeshore sites using radiotelemetry see Evans et al. Our study underlines the power of using a diverse suite of analytical methods to examine avian diets.
Stable isotope approaches will benefit from greater emphasis on isotopic values of the prey base and how these are influenced by landscape practices Peterson et al. FA analyses are a powerful means of tracing the relative importance of aquatic-emergent versus terrestrial insect biomass to nestlings and adults, and future studies should better evaluate residence times of these FAs in various tissue components Foglia et al.
Our use of plasma FA profiles presumably reflected short-term diet and longer periods of dietary assimilation are possible using assays of the cellular blood component. We thank the many landowners and aggregate pit companies that kindly allowed us to access the Bank Swallow colonies. We appreciate the help of our field assistants Megan Hiebert and Bronwyn Harkness.
Blanca X. The manuscript benefitted from the critical comments of two anonymous reviewers. Conserv Physiol. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Tel: Email: ac.
Abstract The Bank Swallow Riparia riparia , a threatened species in Canada, breeds primarily in banks at lakeshores and rivers and in artificial typically inland aggregate mining pits. Keywords: Bank Swallows, diet quality, DNA metabarcoding, fatty acids, population decline, stable isotopes. Introduction Aerial insectivorous birds have declined more precipitously than any other passerine group in North America Smith et al. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. FA analyses Plasma samples for FA analyses first underwent a solvent extraction based on Bligh and Dyer, ; see Supplementary Material for the detailed protocol.
Statistical analyses To evaluate if Bank Swallow nesting habitat affected diet composition and quality, we compared birds from inland pits to those from lakeshore colonies with respect to their feather stable isotope values, faecal prey composition and plasma FA profiles. Results To evaluate dietary differences in Bank Swallows, we used juvenile tail feathers for stable isotopes, juvenile blood plasma for FAs and both adult and juvenile faecal matter for DNA metabarcoding.
Figure 2. Figure 3. FA profiles FA profiles of juvenile blood plasma were separated in ordination space by habitat and year, though a group of lakeshore juveniles overlapped with inland juveniles see Supplementary Fig. Figure 4. Discussion Using a variety of endogenous molecular markers, our study clearly separated the diet of Bank Swallows nesting at inland aggregate mining pits from those nesting at lakeshore sites.
FA profiles FA profiles of juvenile Bank Swallows showed differences between those raised at lakeshore and inland sites as well as between years. Summary A recent analysis of mayfly emergence flights using radar in the western Lake Erie basin and waterways estimated tons of mayfly biomass from a single emergence event Stepanian et al. Acknowledgements We thank the many landowners and aggregate pit companies that kindly allowed us to access the Bank Swallow colonies.
PLoS One 9 : e Front Ecol Evol 3 : Bateman AS, Kelly SD, Jickells TD Nitrogen isotope relationships between crops and fertilizer: implications for using nitrogen isotope analysis as an indicator of agricultural regime. J Agric Food Chem 53 : — Conserv Biol 18 : — Can J Zool 69 : — Can J Biochem Physiol 37 : — Contemp Probl Ecol 9 : — Auk : — Condor : 1— Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73 : — Oecologia : — Freshw Biol 54 : — J N Am Benthol Soc 21 : — Agric Ecosyst Environ 95 : — Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53 : — Ecology 88 : — Environ Sci Technol 38 — Ibis : — Limnol Oceanogr 49 : — Springer, Boston, USA,pp.
Lipids 29 : — Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52 : — The Birds of North America Online. Louis VL The effects of experimental reservoir creation on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury and reproductive success of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Environ Sci Technol 35 : — Am Mild Nat : — Front Ecol Evol 4 : 8. Chem Geol : — Environ Rev 23 : — Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Hobson KA.
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|Bird food bremen kontakt torrent||An impressive isolated mountain range in northern Colombia that ranges from the Caribbean coast to an altitude of 5, meters 18, feet and is one of the more important centers of endemism in South America, with no less than 19 endemic bird species. Many visitors head for the nearby Silverbank though, one of the few places in the world where it is possible to swim with Humpback Whales. Kuwait This tiny land of sand lies on a migrant flyway where the passage of birds usually peaks from mid-March to early May especially early April and in November and can be good enough at least as far as passerines are concerned during the spring to rival more famous destinations for observing migrating birds such as Eilat in Israel. Dimethoxypropane was added to the hexane pool and dried under N 2. Although omega-3 and -6 precursors of ALA and linoleic acid n6 LA are click here in terrestrial insects Hixson et al. These endogenous, time-integrated techniques allow important insight into diets without the need for excessive handling or disturbance at colonies. Tufted Puffins are easy to see on the Pribilof Islands of Alaska.|
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|Bird food bremen kontakt torrent||Likewise, chironomids have steeply declined since Soster et al. Results To evaluate dietary differences in Bank Swallows, we used juvenile tail feathers for stable isotopes, juvenile blood plasma for FAs and both adult and juvenile faecal matter for DNA metabarcoding. Good sites include Cape Greco near Larnaca in the far southeast which has hosted rarities such as Hypocolius and Cinereous Bunting; the vast salt lake at Akrotiri for flocks of Greater Flamingos and link dry plain known as the Akrotiri Gravel Pits, one of the best areas for migrant passerines, which in turn attract Pallid Harriers; and Paphos Pafos Headland in the far southwest, a classic migration site also famous for its Roman ruins. Most people in search of owls and bears visit Finland where Wolverine and Red-flanked Bluetail are also possible but if it's Cranes visitors are after then Sweden is the place to go. The diversity of birds here is simply outstanding! Most of the surviving endemic bird food bremen kontakt torrent are endangered too, especially the Pink Pigeon, the kestrel and the Echo Parakeet, while the other five endemics are all declining; a cuckooshrike, a bulbul, a rare white-eye, a relatively 'common' white-eye and a fody.|
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