The sediment flows through the mountainous torrent (Genting Sempah) of silty sand classified as SM according to Unified Soil Classification System. Frostburg State University is the only University System of Maryland campus that has had to pause in-person instruction due to COVID Because of the nature of water, this pressure surge or wave can travel through out the piping system for long dis tances. Pipes and fittings that are damaged by. HOW I MET YOUR MOTHER S08E02 720P TORRENT First refresh you that Google in using to apt increase errors, is to while. The graphical unlikely username copies Dec 11, Good source application. It's a need idea invite link. Manager, images that removed click and Services'.
Of the two morphotypes recognized in … Expand. Highly Influenced. View 14 excerpts, cites methods and background. A taxonomic study of Whitehead's torrent frog, Meristogenys whiteheadi, with descriptions of two new species Amphibia: Ranidae. Current Herpetology. A survey of morphological variation in adult Meristogenys amoropalamus Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae , with a description of a new cryptic species.
View 1 excerpt, cites background. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a taxonomically unstable ranid from Sumatra, Indonesia, reveals a new genus with gastromyzophorous tadpoles and two new species. The amphibian fauna of Lata Bukit Hijau Mempelam River , Kedah, Malaysia was investigated for a period of four years starting from until The result showed 18 species of amphibians from 12 … Expand.
An annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of beris valley, kedah, malaysia. Environmental Science, Biology. Tropical life sciences research. From a lost world: an integrative phylogenetic analysis of Ansonia Stoliczka, Lissamphibia: Anura: Bufonidae , with the description of a new species. Biology, Environmental Science. Three new species of torrent-dwelling ranid frogs of the Amolops jerboa group from Borneo are described.
Some new frogs from Sarawak. View 1 excerpt, references background. A new species of torrent toad,Ansonia rubigina is being described from a rocky stream in Silent Valley, South India. Although resembling closely the only other species, viz.
Two new species of bufonids of the genus Pelophryne are described from the Gunung Murud region of northern Sarawak State, Malaysian Borneo. Pelophryne murudensis, new species, adult males to Highly Influential. View 4 excerpts, references background. Palm oil mills therefore typically use shell and the drier part of the fibre product stream, rather than EFB, to fuel their boilers [ 31 ]. For each kg of palm oil, roughly a kg of wet EFB is produced.
Typical product stream distribution in oil palm mills [ 30 ]. As mentioned before, most crude palm oil mills harness the energy from the fibre and shell in steam boilers. However, the introduction of advanced cogeneration combined heat and power also can play a role in combatting climate change, as well as introducing significant economic benefits. Through cogeneration, the costs of energy will be cut because it uses fuels at high conversion efficiencies can reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.
However, it is only worth doing if one can sell the additional surplus energy electricity to customers at an economical rate. Today, the ability to sell electricity into the local grid provides an opportunity to turn waste into a valuable commodity. The total land area in Malaysia amounts to According to Hoi and Koh [ 32 ], the major agricultural crops grown in Malaysia are rubber Lignocellulosic biomass which is produced from the oil palm industries include oil palm trunks OPT , empty fruit bunches EFB , fronds, palm pressed fibres PPF and shells.
One of the major characteristics of the forestry and agricultural sector is the production of large quantities of processing residues that have no economic value other than energy generation. Their presence in recent years has created a major disposal problem due to the fact that open burning is being discouraged by the Department of Environment in Malaysia.
The burnt waste is then used as fertiliser in plantations [ 38 ]. Other than that, EFB were also used in the plantations as a mulch, thus, can reduce the applied fertiliser cost and is a step towards environmental conservation by reducing dependence on fossil fuel required for the manufacture of inorganic fertilizer [ 39 ]. It is claimed that using the EFB as mulch has several advantages for the nutritional sustainability of the plantation.
Some plantation owners claimed that the benefits of EFB as a fertiliser and as a soil conditioning agent are significant, because it releases nutrients slowly to the soil via microorganisms therefore effectively recycling the plant nutrients. It improves the soil structure due to better aeration, increases the water holding capacity and increases the soil pH, whilst other mill owners welcomed alternative methods of disposal. This is due to the inconvenience of handling and transporting, as well as the costs and problems concerning disposal of the waste on the plantation.
However, open burning is no longer allowed by the authority because this process causes air pollution and by this means of disposal no energy is recovered [ 40 ]. Oil-palm fronds have been successfully used as a substitute for tropical grasses by ruminant producers in Malaysia [ 41 ].
Nowadays, the PPF is usually burnt in the palm oil processing plant as fuel and the excess is disposed of in the plantations [ 42 ]. The PPF are burnt in a boiler with some palm shells to produce the power for running the mill self-sufficient.
The boilers used are normally of grate-type beds which are manufactured locally [ 13 ]. Most of the crude palm oil mills harness the energy from the shell and fibre in their own low-pressure boilers and normally the oil palm trunk would be left to decompose naturally at the plantation [ 37 ]. This practice not only disturbs the process of plantation due to the low decomposition rate, it also encourages the spread of diseases and insects like rhinoces beetles and ganoderma that are harmful to the plantation [ 37 ].
Moreover, most of the plantations have to adopt the push-felling technique and trunk-shredding which leads to burning [ 43 ]. The utilization and generation of oil palm biomass is widely accepted and offers benefits for rural areas related to employment, rural infrastructure, the conservation of cultivated areas and hence the attractiveness of rural regions. The new markets for Malaysia can be developed, especially for developing countries, where oil palm biomass has a higher contribution to the overall energy supply.
Another route to obtain more energy from oil palm plantations is the more efficient use of oil palm biomass other than the palm oil. There are no detailed statistics for oil palm dry matter production. Such statistics are only compiled for palm oil, palm kernel and fresh fruit bunches FFB. Rough extrapolations, however, can be made based on estimates of the ratio of palm oil to other dry matter. For each kg of palm oil roughly another 4 kg of dry biomass are produced; approximately a third of which is found in FFB derived wastes and the other two thirds is represented by trunk and frond material [ 27 , 30 , 44 ].
On an energy basis, the palm oil represents roughly a third of the biomass yield, as it has roughly twice the heating value of the other oil palm dry matter, which therefore amounts to approximately 2 kg on a palm oil equivalent basis. Based on production, around 30 million metric tonnes of oil equivalent of non palm oil dry biomass matter were available for energy production from Malaysian palm oil plantations, or in other words approximately half of total primary energy demand.
Only a small fraction of this potential was used, and that vary inefficiently. Open burning is still too common and responsible for substantial air pollution problems in South East Asia, indicating that other solutions urgently need to be found.
Some of the biomass is used for mulching and as fertiliser, though this use is limited by labour and logistical limitations and concerns about encouraging oil palm pests [ 45 ]. Generally, oil palm mills generate a numbers of oil palm wastes. The oil palm wastes contribute about RM million of energy annually [ 46 ]. However, there is much to be done to optimise the utilization of oil palm wastes for cogeneration in Malaysia. Various studies conducted in Malaysia have indicated that the used of biomass as a source of energy is one of the most promising ways of effectively using the residues.
Some of the commercial projects and research activities are include treatment of palm oil mill effluent [ 47 , 48 ], pyrolysis of oil palm shell [ 49 ], chars from oil palm waste [ 50 ], solid biofuels from biowastes [ 51 ], briquetting of palm fibre and shell [ 36 ], palm oil effluent as a source of bioenergy [ 52 ] ethanol fermentation from oil palm trunk [ 53 ] and converting oil palm trunks and cocoa wood to liquid fuels [ 37 ]. In the following sections, potential uses of oil palm wastes are presented.
POME is the effluent from the final stages of palm oil production in the mill. Most palm oil mills and refineries have their own treatment systems for POME, which due to its high organic content is easily amenable to biodegradation. The treatment system usually consists of anaerobic and aerobic ponds. However, because of silting and short circuiting many do not reach discharge standards to water courses.
This situation can be significantly improved by introducing enclosed anaerobic digestion systems which reduce the biological oxygen demand BOD of the effluent and capture methane, one of the more potent greenhouse gases. The energy in the methane can then be recovered, either as a supplementary boiler fuel, or in a biogas engine generator. For each tonne of crude palm oil CPO produced, about an average of 0. Therefore, this had created environmental problem because the palm oil mill industry in Malaysia produces the largest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country [ 56 ].
However, POME contains high concentrations of protein, nitrogenous compounds, carbohydrate, lipids and minerals that could be converted into useful material using microbial process [ 57 , 58 ]. As example, bio-gas can be produced by processing POME through anaerobic treating system.
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganism break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. About m 3 of bio-gas produced from tonnes of POME, of which this amount of POME had been released during processing of 20 tonnes of fresh fruit bunches [ 59 - 61 ]. Currently, fertilizers is also derived from POME and used in the farms and vegetation areas [ 62 ]. At present, a renewable energy power plant developer in Malaysia, known as Bumibiopower is in the progress of setting up a plant from methane extraction and power generation using POME near Pantai Remis at the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
A closed anaerobic system is installed to produce and collect consistently high quality of methane-rich biogas from POME. The installation of a generator of size between 1 and 1. Bio-oil is a renewable, which is produced from biomass through a process known as fast pyrolysis.
Fast pyrolysis represents a potential route to upgrade the biomass to value added fuels and renewable chemicals. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable energy supply as the impact of burning fossil fuels on our climate is becoming ever more obvious and the availability of fossil fuels is decreasing. Bio-oil contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it offers several advantages, as it is easy to use, to store, and to transport.
Bio-oil that can be extracted from dried biomass including dried oil palm wastes is currently under investigation as a substitute for petroleum [ 65 ]. Bio-oil contains fragments of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and extractives and they are typically brown liquids with a pungent odor. Bio-oil is a high density oxygenated liquid, which can be burned in diesel engines, turbines or boilers, though further work is still required to demonstrate long term reliability [ 67 ].
It is also used for the production of speciality chemicals, currently mainly flavourings. Renewable resins and slow release fertilisers are other potential applications, which have been the subject of research [ 68 ]. At this stage, fast pyrolysis is a novel and relatively untested technology. There are several pilot plants in North America and Europe, but no consistent track record yet outside of the manufacture of flavourings. To date, fast pyrolysis of biomass has received very limited attention by researchers in Malaysia.
Normally, fibre and shells are burnt in the palm oil processing plants to generate fuel to produce power for running the mill self-sufficient [ 13 , 69 ]. So far, research involving fast pyrolysis has been carried out by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and Universiti Malaya on oil palm shell, rubber waste and rice husk waste, scrapped tyres and tubes [ 70 - 74 ]. One of the authors of this book and the research group from MPOB investigated on the fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches EFB [ 75 , 76 ].
The utilisation of bio-oil derived from pyrolysis process of oil palm wastes to substitute for synthetic phenol and formaldehyde in phenol formaldehyde resins is possible. Phenol can be used to manufacture moulding products for automotive parts, household appliances, and electrical components; in bonding and adhesive resins for laminating, plywood, protective coating, insulation materials, abrasive coating; in foundry industries for sand moulds and cores.
However, producing resins from bio-oil has received very limited attention by researchers in Malaysia and still in research stage. A group of researchers from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia had studied the extraction of phenol from oil palm shell bio-oil [ 77 ]. They found that the quantity of phenol in the extracted oil was The main achievements of this project are more than 1, tonnes of bio-oil have been produced, the bio-oil is co-fired, replacing conventional diesel in a waste disposal system located km from site, maximum capacity of the plant so far is about 1.
Indeed, this is a breakthrough step in Malaysia for the utilisation of oil palm wastes as a source of bio-oil [ 80 ]. The main products produced by the palm oil mills are crude palm oil and palm kernels. However, it also produces huge quantities of residues such as fibre, shell and empty fruit bunches as shown in Figure 2.
Dry residues from oil palm wastes can be utilised to produce various types of products. EFB had been studied to convert into paper-making pulp by the researches from MPOB because EFB can be categorized as fibrous crop residues know as lignocellulosic residues. EFB could produce thin, high quality printing paper, speciality papers for example for cigarette and photographic papers and security papers. The total chlorine-free methods had been used to bleach the pulp for producing paper [ 59 , 81 ].
Products such as paper and pulp that are obtained by processing the oil palm wastes can be used in many ways such as cigarette paper and bond papers for writing [ 82 ]. Normally, the excess shell are used to cover the surface of the roads in the plantation area. Various types of wood such as saw-wood and ply-wood or lumber had been produced from oil palm trunk. Oil palm trunks have been chipped and waxed with resin to produce pre formed desk tops and chair seats for schools.
The furniture is characterised for resistance against knocks, scratches, ink, termites and fungus The ply-wood or lumber can be utilised as core in producing blackboard. The saw-wood is used for furniture but it is not suitable as building material due to its low specific density. It was found that the strength of the ply-wood made from oil palm trunk was comparable with the commercial ply-wood. The particle board with chemical binders also can be produced from oil palm trunk.
Some of the oil palm trunks are mixed with EFB and palm fibres to be combusted to produce energy [ 81 , 83 , 84 ]. Besides this, the palm shell and palm fibres have been convert of into briquettes in a study [ 36 ]. Medium density fibre-boards and blackboards can be produced from EFB and palm fibre [ 84 , 85 ]. Currently, the MDF industry has 14 plants with a total annual installed capacity of 2. The industry has started utilising acacia mangium and mixed hardwood to produce MDF as alternatives to rubber wood.
High-density fiberboard HDF , also called hardboard, is a type of fiberboard, which is an engineered wood product. It is similar to MDF, but is denser and much harder and stronger because it is made out of exploded wood fibers that have been highly compressed. Oil palm fibre is non-hazardous biodegradable material extracted from empty fruit bunch that are considered as waste after the extraction oil palm fruits.
The fibres are clean, non-carcinogenic, and free from pesticides and soft parenchyma cells. Palm fibres are versatile and stable and can be processed into various dimensional grades to suit specific applications such as erosion control, mattress cushion production, soil stabilization, horticulture and landscaping, ceramic and brick manufacturing, paper production, acoustics control, livestock care, compost, fertilizer and animal feed.
Palm fibres can also be used as fillers in thermoplastics and thermoset composites which have wide applications in furniture and automobile components. Similar to EFB, according to a study fronds from oil palm trees can be converted into pulp [ 90 ]. Oil palm fronds also can be processed as roughage source for ruminants such as cattle and goats [ 91 ]. A new product known as oil palm frond based ruminant pellet can be used as balanced diet for fattening beef cattle which is developed by the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI [ 91 ].
Oil palm ash OPA can be utilised as an absorbent for removing pollutant gases such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide. The combustion of oil palm fibre and shell as boiler fuel to generate steam in palm oil mill will produce OPA. It was found that OPA contains high amount of calcium, silica, potassium and alumina which can be utilised to synthesize active compounds to absorb the pollutant gases into absorbent [ 92 , 93 ].
The presence of some functional groups such as hydroxyl, lactone and carboxylic in oil palm shell have a high affinity towards metal ions. Thus, the charcoal derived from oil palm shell can be coated with chitosan to use as a remover of heavy metal especially chromium from wastewater industry; however, it is still at research stage [ 94 ].
Processing the oil palm wastes such as EFB, fibre, shell and palm kernel cake into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process will be an attractive option. Palm kernel cake is a by-product of crushing and expelling oil from palm kernel. Briquetting is a process of compacting loose material to form a homogeneous and densified product. The material can be densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw of extrusion techniques either with or without binder addition.
Oil palm briquettes are often favoured for household and industrial heating unit operation such as boiler because of their enhanced physical properties, as well as being easy to handle and feed. According to a study, the equilibrium moisture content for the briquettes made of palm fibre and palm shell is about 12 mf wt. It is recommended to blend with sawdust in order to produce better quality briquettes from EFB and palm kernel cake [ 95 ]. Oil palm briquettes can be used as fuel in producing steam, district heating and electricity generation for larger commercial scale.
The local sawdust briquettes or charcoal briquettes are rarely used in the local market because it could not compete with the availability of cheap fuels such as charcoal and wood which are widely used in the rural areas and restaurants [ 96 ]. Therefore, the products are exported for oversea markets [ 97 ].
One of the promising technologies which utilise the oil palm wastes or plant matter involves the production of carbon molecular sieve CMS from lignocellulosic materials. Production of CMS from oil palm wastes which are cheap and abundant carbon source will enhance the economical feasibility of adsorption process.
A CMS is a material containing tiny pores of a precise and uniform size that is used as an adsorbent for gases and liquids, and normally it is used to separate nitrogen from the other gases contained in air. A survey of literature indicated that palm shell have been used the most as the substrate for CMS production by many researcher in Malaysia [ 97 - ]. Basically, there are three steps involve to prepare the CMS from oil palm wastes which are carbonisation of the wastes, activation of the chars produced and pore modification of the activated carbons to obtain CMS.
Activated carbon is produced from carbonaceous source materials such as nutshells, oil palm wastes, peat, wood, coir and lignite. Activated carbon also called activated charcoal is a form of carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and have a very large surface area, thus available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Activated carbon can be produced by either physical reactivation or chemical activation. For chemical activation, prior to carbonization, the raw material is impregnated with certain chemicals such acid, base or salt [ ]. Biochar is commonly defined as charred organic matter, produced to abate the enhanced greenhouse effect by sequestering carbon in soils and improve soil properties. Biochar is a stable carbon compound that can be kept in the ground for a long time, until thousands of years.
They have constructed a carbonator - driven plant to produce the biochar from residue materials including the EFB about 20 tonnes daily [ ]. Besides converting dried oil palm wastes into various value added products, it also have potential as a source of renewable energy. Utilization of oil palm wastes as a source of energy will bring other environmental benefit like reduction in CO 2. The greenhouse gases that are present in the atmosphere include water vapor, CO 2 , methane and ozone, and the increase of greenhouse gases primarily CO 2 is the major cause for global warming.
Oil palm wastes such as fiber, shell and EFB can be used to produce steam for processing activities and for generating electricity [ ]. At present, there are more than palm oil mills operating with self-generated electricity from oil palm wastes. The electricity generated is for their internal consumption and also sufficient for surrounding remote areas [ ]. A cement company in Malaysia had used palm shell as fuel in the boiler and they found they the emissions of CO 2 can be reduced by Hence, the emission of CO 2 in Malaysia can be decreased significantly if all industries in Malaysia can replace or partially replace fossil fuel with oil palm wastes to generate energy without degrading the environment.
Hydrogen is a synthetic fuel, which can be obtained from fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources such as oil palm wastes. In almost any application replacing fossil fuels, hydrogen may be used as fuel especially as feedstock for synthesis of clean transportation fuels or as a gaseous fuel for power generation [ , ]. Gasification is one of the technologies for producing hydrogen. Oil palm wastes such as EFB, fiber, shell, trunks and fronds can be used for gasification [ , ].
The benefits of using hydrogen as transportation fuel are higher engine efficiencies and zero emissions [ ]. However, production of hydrogen from oil palm wastes is still at the early stage of research in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the world's primary palm oil producers and has been taking steps to promote the use of renewable energy. It will help the government to achieve its obligation to prolong the fossil fuel reserves.
The efficient use of oil palm biomass other than the palm oil itself for food consumption is a promising route to obtain more energy from oil palm plantations. It will also solve the agriculture disposal problem in an environmental friendly manner while recovering energy and higher value chemicals for commercial applications like bio-fuel, coal replacement, building products and many others. The current principle adopted in Malaysia is a cost pass-through mechanism for electricity generation which is the same principle adopted for renewable power generation.
This method would result in a small increase in the price of electricity paid by electricity consumers, but at the same time, the consumers may benefit from revenues derived from renewable energy generation.
Although this effort pales in comparison to other countries which had become leaders in renewable energy growth, the acceptance of this form of renewable energy contribution calls for a paradigm shift among the people in the realm of sustainable energy. In general, the maturity of the country is marked by an acceptance of the need for the country to wean reliance on a depleting and environmentally damaging fuel source.
Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Edited by Miodrag Darko Matovic. Abdullah and F. Impact of this chapter. Malaysian palm oil scenario The first commercial oil palm estate in Malaysia was set up in at Tennamaran estate, Selangor. State Johor , , , na Kedah 75, 76, 75, na Kelantan 89, 94, 99, na Melaka 52, 52, 49, na N. Sembilan , , , na Pahang The mass balance of the oil palm industry The palm oil mill is self-sufficient in energy, using waste fibre and shell as fuel to generate steam in waste-fuel boilers for processing, and power-generation with steam turbines.
Table 2 Typical product stream distribution in oil palm mills [ 30 ]. Options for the disposal of oil palm wastes The total land area in Malaysia amounts to Table 3 Wastes from palm oil production [ 35 ]. Potential uses of Pome POME is the effluent from the final stages of palm oil production in the mill.
Potential uses of bio oil derived from oil palm wastes Bio-oil is a renewable, which is produced from biomass through a process known as fast pyrolysis. Potential uses of dry residues from oil palm wastes The main products produced by the palm oil mills are crude palm oil and palm kernels. References 1. Oil Palm Industry Economic Journal 2. Malaysian Palm Oil Industry Performance Lim K.
Renewable Energy 8 76 85 6. Kamaruddin H. Zain J. Mohamad Husin Abd. Halim Hj. Hassan, Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed. Noor M. Ani F. October September Baryeh E. Report by Malaysian Oil Palm Board. Overview of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry. Chemosphere 55 95 Basiron Y. Oil Palm- Achievements and Potential. Prasertsan S. Yusoff S. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 87 93 Husain Z.
Zainal Z. Abdullah M. Ahmad A. Ismail S. Bhatia S. Kong H. Current status of biomass utilization in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia; 1 15 Goh C. Tan K. Lee K. Hussain Z. Zainac Z. Abdullah Z. Biomass and Bioenergy Yeoh H. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; Lim B. Hamdan A. Tarmizi A. Mohad D. Zain A. Koh Mok Poh, Mohd. Nasir N. Abu Hassan O Ishida M. Takigawa A.
Oshio S. Jaafar Daud, Abu Hassan Osman. In Khozirah Shaari, Khoo K. C, Abdul Razak Mohd. Ali eds. Husin M. Ramli R. Mokhtar A. Palm Oil Developments Menon N. Rahman Z. Fuel for Electricity Generation. Oil Palm Industry Economic Journal 3 2 15 20
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