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Опубликовано 13.08.2019, автор: Gardaramar

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Now there is before the city a steep mound afar out in the plain, with a clear space about it on this side and on that; this do men verily call Batieia , but the immortals call it the barrow of Myrine , light of step.

The Trojans were led by great Hector of the flashing helm, the son of Priam , and with him were marshalled the greatest hosts by far and the goodliest, raging with the spear. Of the Dardanians again the valiant son of Anchises was captain,. Not alone was he; with him were Antenor 's two sons, Archelochus and Acamas , well skilled in all manner of fighting.

And they that dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida ,. And they that held Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus , and that held Pityeia and the steep mount of Tereia ,. But the twain would in no wise hearken, for the fates of black death were leading them on.

But the Thracians Acamas led and Peirous, the warrior,. But Pyraechmes led the Paeonians , with curved bows, from afar, out of Amydon from the wide-flowing Axius —. And the Paphlagonians did Pylaemenes of the shaggy heart lead from the land of the Eneti , whence is the race of wild she-mules.

These were they that held Cytorus and dwelt about Sesamon , and had their famed dwellings around the river Parthenius. But of the Halizones Odius and Epistrophus were captains from afar, from Alybe, where is the birth-place of silver. And of the Mysians the captains were Chromis and Ennomus the augur; howbeit with his auguries he warded not off black fate,.

And Phorcys and godlike Ascanius led the Phrygians from afar, from Ascania , and were eager to fight in the press of battle. And the Maeonians had captains twain, Mesthles and Antiphus ,. And Nastes again led the Carians , uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander , and the steep crests of Mycale.

And he came to the war all decked with gold, like a girl, fool that he was; but his gold in no wise availed to ward off woeful destruction; nay, he was slain in the river beneath the hands of the son of Aeacus , swift of foot;. And Sarpedon and peerless Glaucus were captains of the Lycians from afar out of Lycia , from the eddying Xanthus.

But the Achaeans came on in silence, breathing fury, eager at heart to bear aid each man to his fellow. But when Menelaus , dear to Ares , was ware of him as he came forth before the throng with long strides, then even as a lion is glad when he lighteth on a great carcase, having found a horned stag or a wild goat. And forthwith he leapt in his armour from his chariot to the ground.

And even as a man at sight of a snake in the glades of a mountain starteth back, and trembling seizeth his limbs beneath him,. Aye, of that were I fain, and it had been better far than that thou shouldest thus be a reproach, and that men should look upon thee in scorn. Verily, methinks, will the long-haired Achaeans laugh aloud, deeming that a prince is our champion because a comely. Was it in such strength as this that thou didst sail over the main in thy seafaring ships, when thou hadst gathered thy trusty comrades, and, coming to an alien folk, didst bring back a comely woman from a distant land, even a daughter of warriors who wield the spear,.

Wilt thou indeed not abide Menelaus , dear to Ares? Thou wouldest learn what manner of warrior he is whose lovely wife thou hast. Then will thy lyre help thee not, neither the gifts of Aphrodite ,. Nay, verily, the Trojans are utter cowards: else wouldest thou ere this have donned a coat of stone by reason of all the evil thou hast wrought.

But now, if thou wilt have me war and do battle, make the other Trojans to sit down and all the Achaeans, but set ye me in the midst and Menelaus , dear to Ares ,. And whichsoever of us twain shall win, and prove him the better man, let him duly take all the wealth and the woman, and bear them to his home. But for you others, do ye swear friendship and oaths of faith with sacrifice. So should ye dwell in deep-soiled Troyland, and let them return.

The other Trojans and all the Achaeans he biddeth to lay aside their goodly battle-gear upon the bounteous earth,. And whichsoever of the twain shall win, and prove him the better man, let him duly take all the wealth and the woman, and bear them to his home; but for us others, let us swear friendship and oaths of faith with sacrifice. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed.

Bring ye two lambs , a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another;. Ever unstable are the hearts of the young; but in whatsoever an old man taketh part, he looketh both before and after,. So they stayed their chariots in the ranks, and themselves stepped forth, and did off their battle-gear. This they laid upon the ground,. And Hector sent to the city heralds twain with all speed to fetch the lambs and to summon Priam.

And Talthybius did lord Agamemnon send forth to the hollow ships, and bade him bring a lamb ;. But Iris went as a messenger to white-armed Helen , in the likeness of her husband's sister, the wife of Antenor 's son, even her that lord Helicaon , Antenor 's son, had to wife, Laodice , the comeliest of the daughters of Priam.

Close to her side then came Iris , swift of foot, and spake to her, saying:. They that of old were wont to wage tearful war against one another on the plain, their hearts set on deadly battle, even they abide now in silence, and the battle has ceased,. But Alexander and Menelaus , dear to Ares , will do battle with their long spears for thee; and whoso shall conquer, his dear wife shalt thou be called.

And they that were about Priam and Panthous and Thymoetes and Lampus and Clytius and Hicetaon , scion of Ares , and Ucalegon and Antenor , men of prudence both, sat as elders of the people at the Scaean gates. Now when they saw Helen coming upon the wall,. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships,.

Verily there be others that are even taller by a head, but so comely a man have mine eyes never yet beheld,. Would that evil death had been my pleasure when I followed thy son hither, and left my bridal chamber and my kinfolk. But that was not to be; wherefore I pine away with weeping. Howbeit this will I tell thee, whereof thou dost ask and enquire. Yon man is the son of Atreus , wide-ruling Agamemnon , that is both a noble king and a valiant spearman. Ere now have I journeyed to the land of Phrygia , rich in vines,.

For I, too, being their ally, was numbered among them on the day when the Amazons came, the peers of men. Shorter is he by a head than Agamemnon , son of Atreus , but broader of shoulder and of chest to look upon. Like a ram he seemeth to me, a ram of thick fleece, that paceth through a great flock of white ewes.

Now when they mingled with the Trojans , as they were gathered together,. But when they began to weave the web of speech and of counsel in the presence of all, Menelaus in truth spake fluently, with few words, but very clearly, seeing he was not a man of lengthy speech. But whenever Odysseus of many wiles arose, he would stand and look down with eyes fixed upon the ground, and his staff he would move neither backwards nor forwards, but would hold it stiff, in semblance like a man of no understanding;.

But whenso he uttered his great voice from his chest, and words like snowflakes on a winter's day, then could no mortal man beside vie with Odysseus ; then did we not so marvel to behold Odysseus ' aspect. Full often was Menelaus , dear to Ares , wont to entertain him in our house, whenever he came from Crete. And now all the rest of the bright-eyed Achaeans do I see,.

Either they followed not with the host from lovely Lacedaemon ,. And the herald Idaeus bare a shining bowl and golden cups; and he came to the old king's side and roused him, saying:. But Alexander and Menelaus , dear to Ares , will do battle with long spears for the woman's sake;. Then Priam mounted and drew back the reins, and by his side Antenor mounted the beauteous car; and the twain drave the swift horses through the Scaean gates to the plain.

But when they were now come to the Trojans and Achaeans,. Straightway then rose up Agamemnon , king of men, and Odysseus of many wiles, and the lordly heralds brought together the offerings for the holy oaths of the gods, and mixed the wine in the bowl,.

And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut hair from off the heads of the lambs ; and the heralds portioned it out to the chieftains of the Trojans and Achaeans. If Alexander slay Menelaus , then let him keep Helen and all her treasure; and we will depart in our seafaring ships.

But if so be fair-haired Menelaus shall slay Alexander ,. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth,. But this, I ween, Zeus knoweth, and the other immortal gods, for which of the twain the doom of death is ordained. But Hector , Priam 's son, and goodly Odysseus. And the people made prayer and lifted their hands to the gods; and thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans speak:.

Then the people sate them down in ranks, where were each man's high-stepping horses , and his inlaid armour was set. But goodly Alexander did on about his shoulders his beautiful armour, even he, the lord of fair-haired Helen. And about his shoulders he cast his silver-studded sword. And in the self-same manner warlike Menelaus did on his battle-gear. First Alexander hurled his far-shadowing spear, and smote upon the son of Atreus ' shield that was well balanced on every side ; howbeit the bronze brake not through but its point was turned in the stout shield.

Next Atreus ' son, Menelaus , rushed upon him with his spear,. Through the bright shield went the mighty spear, and through the corselet, richly dight, did it force its way; and straight on beside his flank the spear shore through his tunic;. Then the son of Atreus drew his silver-studded sword, and raising himself on high smote the horn of his helmet; but upon it his sword shattered in pieces three, aye, four, and fell from his hand.

Then the son of Atreus uttered a bitter cry with a glance at the broad heaven:. Verily I deemed that I had got me vengeance upon Alexander for his wickedness, but now is my sword broken in my hands, and forth from my grasp has my spear flown in vain, and I smote him not. And now would Menelaus have dragged him away, and won glory unspeakable, had not Aphrodite , daughter of Zeus , been quick to see,.

This he then tossed with a swing into the company of the well-greaved Achaeans, and his trusty comrades gathered it up; but himself he sprang back again, eager to slay his foe. But him Aphrodite snatched up, full easily as a goddess may, and shrouded him in thick mist, and set him down in his fragrant, vaulted chamber, and herself went to summon Helen. Her she found on the high wall, and round about her in throngs were the women of Troy.

There is he in his chamber and on his inlaid couch, gleaming with beauty and fair raiment. Thou wouldest not deem that he had come thither from warring with a foe, but rather that he was going to the dance, or sat there as one that had but newly ceased from the dance. Go thou, and sit by his side, and depart from the way of the gods, neither let thy feet any more bear thee back to Olympus ; but ever be thou troubled for him, and guard him, until he make thee his wife, or haply his slave.

Now when they were come to the beautiful palace of Alexander , the handmaids turned forthwith to their tasks, but she, the fair lady, went to the high-roofed chamber. And the goddess, laughter-loving Aphrodite , took for her a chair,. But go now, challenge Menelaus , dear to Ares , again to do battle with thee, man to man. But, nay, I of myself bid thee refrain, and not war amain against fair-haired Menelaus ,.

For this present hath Menelaus vanquished me with Athene 's aid,. But come, let us take our joy, couched together in love; for never yet hath desire so encompassed my soul—nay, not when at the first I snatched thee from lovely Lacedaemon and sailed with thee on my seafaring ships,.

Thus the twain were couched upon the corded bed; but the son of Atreus ranged through the throng like a wild beast,. But none of the Trojans or their famed allies could then discover Alexander to Menelaus , dear to Ares. Not for love verily were they fain to hide him, could any have seen him, for he was hated of all even as black death. Victory is now of a surety seen to rest with Menelaus , dear to Ares ; do ye therefore give up Argive Helen and the treasure with her, and pay ye in requital such recompense as beseemeth,.

Howbeit these verily sit apart and take their pleasure in beholding,. But of a surety victory rests with Menelaus , dear to Ares ; let us therefore take thought how these things are to be;. If this might in any wise be welcome to all and their good pleasure, then might the city of king Priam still be an habitation, and Menelaus take back Argive Helen.

Athene verily held her peace and said naught, wroth though she was at father Zeus , and fierce anger gat hold of her; howbeit Hera 's breast contained not her anger, but she spake to him, saying:. How art thou minded to render my labour vain and of none effect, and the sweat that I sweated in my toil,—aye, and my horses twain waxed weary with my summoning the host for the bane of Priam and his sons? Do thou as thou wilt; but be sure we other gods assent not all thereto.

If thou wert to enter within the gates and the high walls,. Do as thy pleasure is; let not this quarrel in time to come be to thee and me a grievous cause of strife between us twain. And another thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart. For of all cities beneath sun and starry heaven. For never at any time was mine altar in lack of the equal feast, the drink-offering, and the savour of burnt-offering, even the worship that is our due.

Not in their defence do I stand forth, nor account them too greatly. Still it beseemeth that my labour too be not made of none effect; for I also am a god, and my birth is from the stock whence is thine own, and crooked-counselling Cronos begat me as the most honoured of his daughters. Nay then, let us yield one to the other herein, I to thee and thou to me, and all the other immortal gods will follow with us; and do thou straightway bid Athene.

But Athene entered the throng of the Trojans in the guise of a man, even of Laodocus , son of Antenor , a valiant spearman, in quest of god-like Pandarus , if haply she might find him. And she found Lycaon 's son, peerless and stalwart,. Then wouldst thou dare to let fly a swift arrow upon Menelaus ,. From him of a surety wouldst thou before all others bear off glorious gifts, should he see Menelaus , the warlike son of Atreus , laid low by thy shaft, and set upon the grievous pyre.

From its head the horns grew to a length of sixteen palms;. This bow he bent, leaning it against the ground, and laid it carefully down; and his goodly comrades held their shields before him, lest the warrior sons of the Achaeans should leap to their feet.

Then opened he the lid of his quiver, and took forth an arrow, a feathered arrow that had never been shot, freighted with dark pains; and forthwith he fitted the bitter arrow to the string, and made a vow to Apollo , the wolf -born god, famed for his bow,. And he drew the bow, clutching at once the notched arrow and the string of ox 's sinew: the string he brought to his breast and to the bow the iron arrow-head. But when he had drawn the great bow into a round,. Then, O Menelaus , the blessed gods, the immortals, forgat thee not; and before all the daughter of Zeus , she that driveth the spoil, who took her stand before thee, and warded off the stinging arrow.

On the clasped belt lighted the bitter arrow,. So the arrow grazed the outermost flesh of the warrior,. As when a woman staineth ivory with scarlet, some woman of Maeonia or Caria , to make a cheek-piece for horses , and it lieth in a treasure-chamber, though many horsemen pray to wear it; but it lieth there as a king's treasure,.

Thereat shuddered the king of men, Agamemnon , as he saw the black blood flowing from the wound,. But when he saw that the sinew and the barbs were without the flesh, back again into his breast was his spirit gathered. But with a heavy moan spake among them lord Agamemnon , holding Menelaus by the hand; and his comrades too made moan:. Yet in no wise is an oath of none effect and the blood of lambs and drink-offerings of unmixed wine and the hand-clasps, wherein we put our trust.

For of a surety know I this in heart and soul: the day shall come when sacred Ilios shall be laid low,. These things verily shall not fail of fulfillment; yet dread grief for thee shall be mine, O Menelaus ,. Aye, and as one most despised should I return to thirsty Argos , for straightway will the Achaeans bethink them of their native land, and so should we leave to Priam and the Trojans their boast, even Argive Helen.

And thy bones shall the earth rot. And when they were come where was fair-haired Menelaus ,. But when he saw the wound where the bitter arrow had lighted, he sucked out the blood, and with sure knowledge spread thereon soothing simples, which of old Cheiron had given to his father with kindly thought. Then wouldst thou not have seen goodly Agamemnon slumbering, nor cowering, nor with no heart for fight,.

His horses and his chariot adorned with bronze he let be, and his squire, Eurymedon , son of Peiraeus' son Ptolemaeus , kept the snorting steeds withdrawn apart; and straitly did Agamemnon charge him to have them at hand, whenever. Why is it that ye stand thus dazed, like fawns that, when they have grown weary with running over a wide plain,. Even so ye stand dazed and fight not. Is it that ye wait for the Trojans to come near where your ships with stately sterns are drawn up on the shore of the grey sea, that ye may know if haply the son of Cronos will stretch forth his arm over you?

These were arming them for war around wise-hearted Idomeneus ; and Idomeneus stood amid the foremost fighters like a wild boar in valour, while Meriones was speeding on the hindmost battalions. Come, rouse thee for battle, such a one as of old thou declaredst thyself to be. Even as when from some place of outlook a goatherd seeth a cloud coming over the face of the deep before the blast of the West Wind , and to him being afar off it seemeth blacker than pitch as it passeth over the face of the deep, and it bringeth a mighty whirlwind; and he shuddereth at sight of it, and driveth his flock beneath a cave;.

At sight of these lord Agamemnon waxed glad, and he spake and addressed them with winged words:. I would, O father Zeus and Athene and Apollo , that such spirit as yours might be found in the breasts of all;. Then found he Nestor , the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians , arraying his comrades and urging them to fight,.

The charioteers first he arrayed with their horses and cars, and behind them the footmen, many and valiant, to be a bulwark of battle; but the cowards he drave into the midst,. Upon the charioteers was he first laying charge, and he bade them keep their horses in hand, nor drive tumultuously on amid the throng. But what man soe'er from his own car can come at a car of the foe, let him thrust forth with his spear, since verily it is far better so.

Thus also did men of olden time lay waste cities and walls, having in their breasts mind and spirit such as this. As I was then a youth, so now doth old age attend me. Yet even so will I abide among the charioteers and urge them on by counsel and by words; for that is the office of elders. Spears shall the young men wield. He found Menestheus , driver of horses , son of Peteos , as he stood, and about him were the Athenians , masters of the war-cry.

And hard by stood Odysseus of many wiles,. For you twain were it seemly that ye take your stand amid the foremost, and confront blazing battle; for ye are the first to hear my bidding to the feast, whenso we Achaeans make ready a banquet for the elders. But now would ye gladly behold it, aye if ten serried battalions of the Achaeans were to fight in front of you with the pitiless bronze.

How sayest thou that we are slack in battle, whenso we Achaeans rouse keen war against the horse -taming Trojans? Thou shalt see, if so be thou wilt and if thou carest aught therefor, the father of Telemachus mingling with the foremost fighters. This that thou sayest is as empty wind. Nay, come, these things will we make good hereafter, if any harsh word hath been spoken now; and may the gods make all to come to naught.

At sight of him too lord Agamemnon chid him, and spake and addressed him with winged words:. Tydeus of a surety was not wont thus to cower, but far in advance of his comrades to fight against the foe, as they tell who saw him amid the toil of war; for I never. Once verily he came to Mycenae , not as an enemy, but as a guest, in company with godlike Polyneices , to gather a host; for in that day they were waging a war against the sacred walls of Thebes , and earnestly did they make prayer that glorious allies be granted them;.

So when they had departed and were with deep reeds, that coucheth in the grass, there did the Achaeans send forth Tydeus on an embassage. Then, for all he was a stranger, the horseman Tydeus feared not, all alone though he was amid the many Cadmeians , but challenged them all to feats of strength and in every one vanquished he them. But the Cadmeians , goaders of horses , waxed wroth, and as he journeyed back, brought and set a strong ambush, even fifty youths, and two there were as leaders, Maeon , son of Haemon , peer of the immortals,.

But Tydeus even upon these let loose a shameful fate, and slew them all; one only man suffered he to return home; Maeon he sent forth in obedience to the portents of the gods. Such a man was Tydeus of Aetolia ; howbeit the son. But the son of glorious Capaneus made answer. I count it not shame that Agamemnon , shepherd of the host, should urge on to battle the well-greaved Achaeans;. Nay, come, let us twain also bethink us of furious valour.

As when on a sounding beach the swell of the sea beats, wave after wave, before the driving of the West Wind ; out on the deep at the first is it gathered in a crest, but thereafter. But for the Trojans , even as ewes stand in throngs past counting in the court of a man of much substance to be milked of their white milk,. These were urged on by Ares , and the Greeks by flashing-eyed Athene ,. She it was that now cast evil strife into their midst. Now when they were met together and come into one place, then dashed they together shields and spears and the fury of bronze-mailed warriors; and the bossed shields closed each with each, and a great din arose.

As when winter torrents, flowing down the mountains from their great springs to a place where two valleys meet, join their mighty floods in a deep gorge,. Antilochus was first to slay a warrior of the Trojans in full armour, a goodly man amid the foremost fighters, Echepolus , son of Thalysius. Him was he first to smite upon the horn of his helmet with crest of horse -hair,. As he fell lord Elephenor caught him by the feet, the son he of Chalcodon , and captain of the great-souled Abantes ,.

Even as wolves leapt they one upon the other, and man made man to reel. Then Telamonian Aias smote Anthemion's son, the lusty youth Simoeisius , whom on a time his mother. For this cause they called him Simoeisius ; yet paid he not back to his dear parents the recompense of his upbringing, and but brief was the span of his life, for that he was laid low by the spear of great-souled Aias. Even in such wise did Zeus -born Aias slay Simoeisius , son of Anthemion.

And at him Priam 's son Antiphus , of the flashing corselet,. Him he missed, but smote in the groin Odysseus ' goodly comrade, Leucus , as he was drawing the corpse to the other side; so he fell upon it, and the body slipped from his grasp. For his slaying waxed Odysseus mightily wroth at heart,.

Not in vain did he let fly his spear, but smote Priam 's bastard son Democoon,. Him Odysseus , wroth for his comrade's sake, smote with his spear on the temple, and out through the other temple passed the spear-point of bronze, and darkness enfolded his eyes, and he fell with a thud and upon him his armour clanged.

Nay, and Achilles moreover fighteth not, the son of fair-haired Thetis , but amid the ships nurseth his bitter wrath. Then was Amarynceus ' son, Diores , caught in the snare of fate; for with a jagged stone was he smitten on the right leg by the ankle, and it was the leader of the Thracians that made the cast,. The sinews twain and the bones did the ruthless stone utterly crush; and he fell backward in the dust and stretched out both his hands to his dear comrades, gasping out his life; and there ran up he that smote him,.

But as the other sprang back Thoas of Aetolia smote him with a cast of his spear in the breast above the nipple, and the bronze was fixed in his lung; and Thoas came close to him, and plucked forth from his chest the mighty spear,. Howbeit of his armour he stripped him not, for about him his comrades, men of Thrace that wear the hair long at the top, stood with long spears grasped in their hands, and for all that he was great and mighty and lordly,.

Thus the twain lay stretched in the dust each by the other, captains the one of the Thracians and the other of the brazen-coated Epeians ; and about them were others full many likewise slain. Then could no man any more enter into the battle and make light thereof,. She kindled from his helm and shield flame unwearying,. Even such flame did she kindle from his head and shoulders; and she sent him into the midst where men thronged the thickest.

Now there was amid the Trojans one Dares , a rich man and blameless,. These twain separated themselves from the host and went forth against Diomedes , they in their car, while he charged on foot upon the ground. And when they were come near, as they advanced against each other,. Then Tydeus ' son rushed on with the bronze, and not in vain did the shaft speed from his hand, but he smote his foe on the breast between the nipples, and thrust him from the car.

Nay, nor would he himself have escaped black fate, had not Hephaestus guarded him, and saved him, enfolding him in darkness, that his aged priest might not be utterly fordone with grief. But when the great-souled Trojans beheld the two sons of Dares , the one in flight and the other slain beside the car, the hearts of all were dismayed. And flashing-eyed Athene. But for us twain, let us give place, and avoid the wrath of Zeus. Then she made him to sit down on the sandy banks of Scamander , and the Trojans were turned in flight by the Danaans.

Each one of the captains slew his man; first the king of men, Agamemnon , thrust from his car the leader of the Halizones , great Odius ,. Him then the squires of Idomeneus stripped of his armour; and Scamandrius, son of Strophius , cunning in the chase,.

Yet in no wise did the archer Artemis avail him now, neither all that skill in archery wherein of old he excelled;. So he fell face foremost, and upon him his armour clanged. And Meriones slew Phereclus , son of Tecton ,. He it was that had also built for Alexander the shapely ships, source of ills, that were made the bane of all the Trojans and of his own self, seeing he knew not in any wise the oracles of the gods. And Pedaeus , Antenor 's son, was slain of Meges ;.

To him Phyleus ' son, famed for his spear, drew nigh and smote him with a cast of his sharp spear on the sinew of the head; and straight through amid the teeth the bronze shore away the tongue at its base. And Eurypylus , son of Euaemon , slew goodly Hypsenor, son of Dolopion high of heart, that was made priest of Scamander , and was honoured of the folk even as a god—upon him did Eurypylus , Euaemon 's glorious son,.

So the arm all bloody fell to the ground; and down over his eyes came dark death and mighty fate. Thus toiled they in the mighty conflict;. For he stormed across the plain like unto a winter torrent at the full, that with its swift flood sweeps away the embankments; this the close-fenced embankments hold not back,.

Even in such wise before Tydeus ' son were the thick battalions of the Trojans driven in rout, nor might they abide him for all they were so many. Smitten is the best man of the Achaeans, and I deem he will not for long endure the mighty shaft, if in very truth the king,. And thereat Diomedes , good at the war-cry, made prayer:. If ever with kindly thought thou stoodest by my father's side amid the fury of battle, even so do thou now be likewise kind to me, Athene.

Grant that I may slay this man, and that he come within the cast of my spear, that hath smitten me or ever I was ware of him, and boasteth over me,. And the mist moreover have I taken from thine eyes that afore was upon them, to the end that thou mayest well discern both god and man. Wherefore now if any god come hither to make trial of thee,. Then slew he Astynous and Hypeiron, shepherd of the host;. These then he let be, but went his way in pursuit of Abas and Polyidus , sons of the old man Eurydamas , the reader of dreams;.

Then went he on after Xanthus and Thoon , sons twain of Phaenops, and both well beloved; and their father was fordone with grievous old age, and begat no other son to leave in charge of his possessions. Then took he two sons of Priam , Dardanus ' son,. Even as a lion leapeth among the kine and breaketh the neck of a heifer or a cow as they graze in a woodland pasture, so did Tydeus ' son thrust both these in evil wise from their car, sorely against their will, and thereafter despoiled them of their armour;.

But Aeneas was ware of him as he made havoc of the ranks of warriors, and went his way along the battle amid the hurtling of the spears in quest of godlike Pandarus , if so be he might anywhere find him. He found the son of Lycaon , goodly and valiant,. Therein may no man of this land vie with thee, nor any in Lycia declare himself to be better than thou. Come now, lift up thy hands in prayer to Zeus , and let fly a shaft at this man,.

But if he be the man I deem him, even the wise-hearted son of Tydeus ,. For already have I let fly a shaft at him, and I smote him upon the right shoulder clean through the plate of his corselet;. And horses have I not at hand, neither car whereon I might mount—yet in Lycaon 's halls, I ween, there be eleven fair chariots, new-wrought, new-furnished, with cloths spread over them;. Aye, and as I set out hither the old spearman Lycaon straitly charged me in our well-built house: he bade me be mounted on horse and car,.

Howbeit I hearkened not— verily it had been better far! So I left them, and am come on foot to Ilios , trusting in my bow;. Already have I let fly a shaft at two chieftains, the son of Tydeus and Atreus ' son, and smitten them fairly, and from them both of a surety I drew forth blood, yet did I but arouse them the more.

Wherefore with ill hap was it that I took from the peg my curved bow. But if so be I shall return and behold with mine eyes my native land and my wife and great, high-roofed palace, then may some alien forthwith cut my head from me,. Nay, come, mount upon my car, that thou mayest see of what sort are the horses of Tros , well skilled to course fleetly hither and thither over the plain whether in pursuit or in flight.

They twain will bring the two of us safely to the city,. Come, therefore, take thou now the lash and the shining reins, and I will dismount to fight; or else do thou await his onset, and I will look to the horses. I would not that they take fright and run wild, and for want of thy voice be not minded to bear us forth from the battle,. Nay, drive thou thyself thine own car and thine own horses , and I will abide this man's onset with my sharp spear. The one is well skilled with the bow, even Pandarus , and moreover avoweth him to be the son of Lycaon ; while Aeneas avoweth himself to be born of peerless Anchises , and his mother is Aphrodite.

Nay, come, let us give ground on the car, neither rage thou thus,. Not in my blood is it to fight a skulking fight or to cower down; still is my strength steadfast. As for these twain, their swift horses shall not bear both back from us again, even if one or the other escape.

Of this stock the king of men Anchises stole a breed, putting his mares to them while Laomedon knew naught thereof. Could we but take these twain, we should win us goodly renown. So the stubborn bronze shore off his tongue at its root, and the spear-point came out by the base of the chin. Then he fell from out the car,. But Aeneas leapt down with shield and long spear, seized with fear lest perchance the Achaeans might drag from him the dead man.

Over him he strode like a lion confident in his strength, and before him he held his spear and his shield that was well balanced on every side,. But the son of Tydeus grasped in his hand a stone—a mighty deed—one that not two men could bear, such as mortals now are; yet lightly did he wield it even alone. Then the warrior fell upon his knees, and thus abode, and with his stout hand leaned he.

And now would the king of men, Aeneas , have perished, had not the daughter of Zeus , Aphrodite , been quick to mark, even his mother, that conceived him to Anchises as he tended his kine. About her dear son she flung her white arms,. She then was bearing her dear son forth from out the battle; but the son of Capaneus forgat not.

He held his own single-hooved horses away from the turmoil, binding the reins taut to the chariot rim, but rushed upon the fair-maned horses of Aeneas , and drave them forth from the Trojans into the host of the well-greaved Achaeans,. Then did the warrior mount his own car and take the bright reins, and straightway drive his stout-hooved horses in eager quest of Tydeus ' son.

But when he had come upon her as he pursued her through the great throng,. She then with a loud cry let fall her son, and Phoebus Apollo took him in his arms. Sufficeth it not that thou beguilest weakling women? For sorely am I pained with a wound which a mortal man dealt me, Tydeus ' son, that would now fight even with father Zeus.

She touched the horses with the lash to start them, and nothing loath the pair sped onward. Straightway then they came to the abode of the gods, to steep Olympus and there wind-footed, swift Iris stayed the horses and loosed them from the car, and cast before them food ambrosial;. For no longer is the dread battle one between Trojans and Achaeans;. So suffered Hera , when the mighty son of Amphitryon smote her on the right breast with a three-barbed arrow; then upon her too came pain that might in no wise be assuaged.

But he went to the house of Zeus and to high Olympus with grief at heart, pierced through with pains;. But Paeeon spread thereon simples that slay pain, and healed him; for verily he was in no wise of mortal mould. Rash man, worker of violence, that recked not of his evil deeds, seeing that with his arrows he vexed the gods that hold Olympus.

But Athene and Hera , as they looked upon her, sought to anger Zeus , son of Cronos , with mocking words. Of a surety now Cypris has been urging some one of the women of Achaea to follow after the Trojans , whom now she so wondrously loveth; and while stroking such a one of the fair-robed women of Achaea ,. Thrice then he leapt upon him, furiously fain to slay him, and thrice did Apollo beat back his shining shield. But when for the fourth time he rushed upon him like a god, then with a terrible cry spake to him Apollo that worketh afar:.

There Leto and the archer Artemis healed him in the great sanctuary, and glorified him; but Apollo of the silver bow fashioned a wraith. Then unto furious Ares spake Phoebus Apollo :. Cypris first hath he wounded in close fight on the hand at the wrist, and thereafter rushed he upon mine own self like unto a god.

Shall it be until such time as they fight about our well-built gates? Low lieth a man whom we honoured even as goodly Hector , Aeneas , son of great-hearted Anchises. Nay, come, let us save from out the din of conflict our noble comrade. Thou saidst forsooth that without hosts and allies thou wouldst hold the city alone with the aid of thy sisters' husbands and thy brothers;.

For I that am but an ally am come from very far; afar is Lycia by eddying Xanthus ,. Yet even so urge I on the Lycians , and am fain myself to fight my man, though here is naught of mine such as the Achaeans might bear away or drive;. Beware lest thou and they, as if caught in the meshes of all-ensnaring flax, become a prey and spoil unto your foemen; and they shall anon lay waste your well-peopled city. On thee should all these cares rest by night and day,.

Forthwith he leapt in his armour from his chariot to the ground,. So they rallied and took their stand with their faces towards the Achaeans; and the Argives in close throng abode their coming and fled not. And even as the wind carrieth chaff about the sacred threshing-floors. The might of their hands they bare straight forward, and about the battle furious Ares drew a veil of night to aid the Trojans , ranging everywhere; so fulfilled he the behest of Phoebus Apollo of the golden sword, who bade him.

And Apollo himself sent Aeneas forth from out the rich sanctuary, and put courage in the breast of the shepherd of the host. And Aeneas took his place in the midst of his comrades, and these waxed glad. Howbeit they questioned him not at all, for toil of other sort forbade them, even that which he of the silver bow was stirring, and Ares the bane of mortals, and Discord that rageth without ceasing.

On the other side the Aiantes twain and Odysseus and Diomedes. Of men that have shame more are saved than are slain, but from them that flee cometh neither glory nor any avail. Him did lord Agamemnon smite with his spear upon the shield, and this stayed not the spear, but clean through it passed the bronze, and into the lower belly he drave it through the belt;.

Then Aeneas slew two champions of the Danaans , the sons of Diocles , Crethon and Orsilochus , whose father dwelt in well-built Pheme , a man rich in substance, and in lineage was he sprung from the river. And Orsilochus begat greatsouled Diocles , and of Diocles were born twin sons, Crethon and Orsilochus , well skilled in all manner of fighting. Like them two lions upon the mountain tops.

Now the twain were holding forth their hands and their sharp spears each against the other, fain to do battle,. Then Aeneas abode not, swift warrior though he was, when he beheld the two holding their ground side by side; and they, when they had dragged the dead to the host of the Achaeans, laid the hapless pair in the arms of their comrades,.

Then the twain slew Pylaemenes , peer of Ares , the leader of the great-souled Paphlagonian shieldmen. Him as he stood still, the son of Atreus , spear-famed Menelaus , pierced with his spear, smiting him upon the collar-bone;. Then Antilochus leapt upon him and drave his sword into his temple,. Long time he stood there—for he lighted on deep sand—until his horses kicked him and cast him to the ground in the dust; and them Antilochus lashed, and drave into the host of the Achaeans.

At sight of him Diomedes , good at the war-cry shuddered; and even as a man in passing over a great plain halteth in dismay at a swift-streaming river that floweth on to the sea, and seeing it seething with foam starteth backward,. Then Hector slew two warriors well skilled in fight, Menesthes and Anchialus , the twain being in one car. Then glorious Aias rushed upon him to strip him of his armour, and the Trojans rained upon him their spears, all sharp and gleaming, and his shield caught many thereof.

Furthermore, he feared the strong defence of the lordly Trojans , that beset him both many and valiant with spears in their hands and,. So these toiled in the mighty conflict, but Tlepolemus , son of Heracles , a valiant man and tall, was roused by resistless fate against godlike Sarpedon. Of other sort, men say, was mighty Heracles , my father, staunch in fight, the lionhearted,.

But thine is a coward's heart, and thy people are minishing. In no wise methinks shall thy coming from Lycia prove a defence to the men of Troy ,. But for thee, I deem that death and black fate shall here be wrought by my hands, and that vanquished beneath my spear thou shalt yield glory to me, and thy soul to Hades of the goodly steeds.

Sarpedon smote him full upon the neck, and the grievous point passed clean through, and down upon his eyes came the darkness of night and enfolded him. Then his goodly companions bare godlike Sarpedon forth from out the fight, and the long spear burdened him sore,. And on the other side the well-greaved Achaeans bare Tlepolemus from out the fight, and goodly Odysseus.

But not for great-hearted Odysseus was it ordained. Then his goodly comrades made godlike Sarpedon to sit beneath a beauteous oak of Zeus that beareth the aegis,. Howbeit he revived, and the breath of the North Wind as it blew upon him made him to live again after in grievous wise he had breathed forth his spirit. But the Argives before the onset of Ares and Hector harnessed in bronze.

Who then was first to be slain and who last by Hector , Priam 's son, and brazen Ares? Nay, come, let us twain likewise bethink us of furious valour. Of these the felloe verily is of gold imperishable,. From the body stood forth the pole of silver, and on the end. But Athene , daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, let fall upon her father's floor her soft robe,. About her shoulders she flung the tasselled aegis, fraught with terror, all about which Rout is set as a crown,.

And upon her head she set the helmet with two horns and with bosses four, wrought of gold, and fitted with the men-at-arms of an hundred cities. And Hera swiftly touched the horses with the lash, and self-bidden groaned upon their hinges the gates of heaven which the Horae had in their keeping,.

There through the gate they drave their horses patient of the goad; and they found the son of Cronos as he sat apart from the other gods on the topmost peak of many-ridged Olympus. Father Zeus , wilt thou in any wise be wroth with me if I smite Ares in sorry fashion and drive him out of the battle?

But when they were come to the land of Troy and the two flowing rivers, where the Simois and Scamander join their streams,. Then the goddesses twain went their way with steps like those of timorous doves, eager to bring aid to the Argive warriors. So long as goodly Achilles was wont to fare into battle, never would the Trojans come forth even before the Dardanian gate;. And to the side of Tydeus ' son sprang the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene.

She found that prince beside his horses and car,. For the sweat vexed him beneath the broad baldric of his round shield; therewith was he vexed and his arm grew weary, so he was lifting up the baldric and wiping away the dark blood. Then the goddess laid hold of the yoke of his horses , and said:. Tydeus was small in stature, but a warrior.

Even when I would not suffer him to fight or make a show of prowess, what time he came, and no Achaean with him, on an embassage to Thebes into the midst of the many Cadmeians —. But as for thee, I verily stand by thy side and guard thee,. Then art thou no offspring of Tydeus , the wise-hearted son of Oeneus. In no wise doth spiritless terror possess me nor any slackness, but I am still mindful of thy behest which thou didst lay upon me.

Thou wouldest not suffer me to fight face to face with the other blessed gods,. Therefore it is that I now give ground myself and have given command to all the rest of the Argives to be gathered here likewise; for I discern Ares lording it over the battle-field.

Nay, come, at Ares first drive thou thy single-hooved horses ,. Loudly did the oaken axle creak beneath its burden, for it bare a dread goddess and a peerless warrior. He was stripping of his armour huge Periphas that was far the best of the Aetolians , the glorious son of Ochesius. Him was blood-stained Ares stripping; but Athene. Now when Ares , the bane of mortals, was ware of goodly Diomedes , he let be huge Periphas to lie where he was, even where at the first he had slain him and taken away his life but made straight for Diomedes , tamer of horses.

There did he thrust and smite him, rending the fair flesh, and forth he drew the spear again. Then brazen Ares bellowed. Even as a black darkness appeareth from the clouds. Speedily he came to the abode of the gods, to steep Olympus , and sate him down by the side of Zeus , son of Cronos , grieved at heart, and shewed the immortal blood flowing from the wound,. Ever do we gods continually suffer most cruelly by one another's devices, whenas we show favour to men.

For all the other gods that are in Olympus are obedient unto thee, and subject to thee, each one of us; but to her thou payest no heed whether in word or in deed,. Now hath she set on the son of Tydeus , Diomedes high of heart, to vent his rage upon immortal gods. Cypris first he wounded with a thrust in close fight upon the hand at the wrist, and thereafter rushed upon mine own self as he had been a god.

Thou hast the unbearable, unyielding spirit of thy mother, even of Hera ; her can I scarce control by my words. Wherefore it is by her promptings, meseems, that thou sufferest thus. Even as the juice of the fig speedily maketh to grow thick the white milk that is liquid, but is quickly curdled as a man stirreth it, even so swiftly healed he furious Ares. Then back to the palace of great Zeus fared Argive Hera and Alalcomenean Athene , when they had made Ares , the bane of mortals, to cease from his man-slaying.

Him he was first to smite upon the horn of his helmet with thick crest of horse -hair,. And Diomedes , good at the war-cry, slew Axylus, Teuthras ' son, that dwelt in well-built Arisbe , a man rich in substance, that was beloved of all men;. Howbeit of all these was there not one on this day to meet the foe before his face, and ward from him woeful destruction; but Diomedes robbed the twain of life, himself and his squire Calesius, that was then the driver of his car; so they two passed beneath the earth.

Now Bucolion was son of lordly Laomedon , his eldest born, though the mother that bare him was unwed;. Of these did the son of Mecisteus loose the might and the glorious limbs and strip the armour from their shoulders. And Polypoetes staunch in fight slew Astyalus,. And Antilochus , son of Nestor , slew Ablerus with his bright spear, and the king of men, Agamemnon , slew Elatus that dwelt in steep Pedasus by the banks of fair-flowing Satnioeis.

But Adrastus did Menelaus , good at the war-cry, take alive; for his two horses , coursing in terror over the plain, became entangled in a tamarisk bough, and breaking the curved car at the end of the pole,. And to his side came Menelaus , son of Atreus , bearing his far-shadowing spear. Hath then so great kindness been done thee in thy house by Trojans? Of them let not one escape sheer destruction and the might of our hands, nay, not the man-child whom his mother bears in her womb; let not even him escape,.

Then would the Trojans have been driven again by the Achaeans dear to Ares up to Ilios , vanquished in their weakness,. But when ye have aroused all our battalions, we verily will abide here and fight against the Danaans ,.

Not even Achilles did we ever fear on this wise, that leader of men,. Forthwith he leapt in his armour from his chariot to the ground, and brandishing his two sharp spears went everywhere throughout host,. So they rallied, and took their stand with their faces toward the Achaeans, and the Argives gave ground and ceased from slaying; and they deemed that one of the immortals had come down from starry heaven to bear aid to the Trojans , that they rallied thus.

But Glaucus , son of Hippolochus , and the son of Tydeus. For never have I seen thee in battle where men win glory. Unhappy are they whose children face my might. But and if thou art one of the immortals come down from heaven, then will I not fight with the heavenly gods. Then against Lycurgus did the gods that live at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos made him blind;.

So would not I be minded to fight against the blessed gods. But if thou art of men, who eat the fruit of the field, draw nigh, that thou mayest the sooner enter the toils of destruction. Even as are the generations of leaves, such are those also of men. As for the leaves, the wind scattereth some upon the earth, but the forest, as it bourgeons, putteth forth others when the season of spring is come; even so of men one generation springeth up and another passeth away.

There is a city Ephyre in the heart of Argos , pasture-land of horses , and there dwelt Sisyphus that was craftiest of men, Sisyphus , son of Aeolus ; and he begat a son Glaucus ;. To him the gods granted beauty and lovely manliness; but Proetus in his heart devised against him evil, and drave him, seeing he was mightier far, from the land of the Argives ; for Zeus had made them subject to his sceptre.

To slay him he forbare, for his soul had awe of that; but he sent him to Lycia , and gave him baneful tokens, graving in a folded tablet many signs and deadly,. So he went his way to Lycia under the blameless escort of the gods. And when he was come to Lycia and the stream of Xanthus , then with a ready heart did the king of wide Lycia do him honour: for nine days' space he shewed him entertainment, and slew nine oxen. Howbeit when the tenth rosy-fingered Dawn appeared,.

But when he had received from him the evil token of his daughter's husband, first he bade him slay the raging Chimaera. And Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods. Next fought he with the glorious Solymi ,.

And against him, as he journeyed back therefrom, the king wove another cunning wile; he chose out of wide Lycia the bravest men and set an ambush; but these returned not home in any wise,. But when the king now knew that he was the valiant offspring of a god, he kept him there, and offered him his own daughter, and gave to him the half of all his kingly honour; moreover the Lycians meted out for him a demesne pre-eminent above all,.

And the lady bare to wise-hearted Bellerophon three children, Isander and Hippolochus and Laodameia. With Laodameia lay Zeus the counsellor, and she bare godlike Sarpedon , the warrior harnessed in bronze. But Hippolochus begat me and of him do I declare that I am sprung; and he sent me to Troy and straitly charged me ever to be bravest and pre-eminent above all, and not bring shame upon the race of my fathers,.

This is the lineage and the blood whereof I avow me sprung. He planted his spear in the bounteous earth, and with gentle words spake to the shepherd of the host:. Oeneus gave a belt bright with scarlet,. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos ,.

So let us shun one another's spears even amid the throng; full many there be for me to slay, both Trojans and famed allies, whomsoever a god shall grant me and my feet overtake;. And let us make exchange of armour, each with the other, that these men too may know that we declare ourselves to be friends from our fathers' days. And then from Glaucus did Zeus , son of Cronos , take away his wit,.

But when Hector was come to the Scaean gate and the oak-tree, round about him came running the wives and daughters of the Trojans asking of their sons and brethren and friends. But he thereupon bade them make prayer to the gods, all of them in turn; yet over many were sorrows hung. But when he was now come to the beauteous palace of Priam , adorned with polished colonnades —and in it were fifty chambers of polished stone,.

But stay till I have brought thee honey-sweet wine that thou mayest pour libation to Zeus and the other immortals first,. When a man is spent with toil wine greatly maketh his strength to wax, even as thou art spent with defending thy fellows.

Nay, do thou go to the temple of Athene ,. It seemed good to me to recall, in order, the famous sites on land, and the famous features of the seas, preserving the differences in the world. Among these I have included studies on the natures of Man and other animals. I have added some things about strange trees and the appearances of remote tribes, and the unusual rites of far-flung peoples.

Also I have included not a few things, worthy of mention, which it seemed negligent to omit. For what can we claim as our own, since nothing has been passed over by the diligence of old? What remains untouched up to our own era? Therefore, I beg you not to weigh the credit of this work in the present time, seeing indeed that I, having followed the traces of the old stamps, prefer to choose the universal opinions rather than to innovate.

You might say they make their beginning at the very citadel of form. Now, things which were omitted have been added, with greater care, to the incorrect versions which have been condemned, although, as if approved, they are widely circulated , towards the development of the inquiry. Lest by chance a rough copy, with incomplete content, as though endorsed by me, fall into your hands, I have sent, as you see, this collection, interspersed with my own opinions.

I did so because, in the first place, the layout of the work had to be referred to your diligence, and so the betrayal of rough unshapeliness be expunged from the proper edition. Therefore, the title of the work shall be Polyhistor. The title I had designated in the beginning, to wit, Collection of Marvellous Things, I have rejected, and I am pleased to assign it to oblivion. So then, when you compare this letter to the one which forms the beginning of my scriptio, you will understand that you occupy the same place as he to whom I dedicated the culmination of my labour.

And since he and his Arcadians lived on the highest part of the hill, the derivation followed that the safest parts of cities were in later times called arces. They were persuaded by Roma, a most noble lady among their captives, who was as a companion to them, to burn their ships. However, it is strictly forbidden to publish it, as it is enunciated along with other secrets during our religious ceremonies. This was agreed upon so that the reverence given to the accepted silence might abolish knowledge of the thing itself.

She is the protector of Silence itself, and her statue shows her with her mouth gagged and sealed. Indeed, Hercules dedicated an altar to his father Inventor, which he had vowed to do after the punishment of Cacus , when he had recovered his lost cattle. Gellius reports that he was taken prisoner by Tarchon the Tyrrhenian , to whom he had come as ambassador from King Marsyas , with Megales the Phrygian as his associate. When he broke out of prison he returned from whence he had come, and with a superior number of troops, he seized the country around Vulturnus and Campania.

Next he dared to attack the territory which had been handed over to Arcadian rule. But he was overwhelmed by Hercules , who was by chance present there. He did this after he learned from Nicostrate, mother of Evander , who was called Carmentis because of her prophesying, that he would one day become immortal.

He made an enclosure for this altar, and taught the Potitii the rites of worship, which involved the sacrifice of cattle. The sanctuary is in the Forum Boarium , and evidence of his banquets and of his greatness remain there, 11 for, because of divine influence, neither flies nor dogs can enter into the place. This came about, it is said, because when Hercules was performing the public distribution of the sacrificial meat, he invoked the god Myiagrus.

Also, he left his club at the entrance, and the dogs fled at its smell. These things have endured to this day. They did this in honour of Saturn , whom, they learned, had been an inhabitant of the region. In addition, they named what is now the Capitoline Hill the Hill of Saturn ,.

This name of the gate was later changed to Pandana. The lower part of the Capitoline Hill was the dwelling place of Carmentis , now the location of the temple of Carmentis , from which the Carmentalis Gate took its name. They also first established the town of Pallanteum , which the Aborigines had inhabited for some time.

However, because of the inconvenience of the nearby swamp, made by the flowing Tiber , they soon left it behind and set out for Reate. Others think that the name was taken from that of Pale , the pastoral goddess, or, as Silenus shows, from the name of Palantho, the daughter of Hyperboreus, whom Hercules was seen to have deflowered there.

This was where Romulus stayed overnight; he auspiciously laid down the foundations of the walls when he was eighteen years old, eleven days before the Kalends of May, between the second and third hours, as Lucius Tarruntius, a very notable mathematician, has recorded. Romulus reigned for thirty-seven years. His second triumph was over the people of Antemnae , and the third over the people of Veii.

He disappeared at the swamp of Capra, on the Nones of July. Tatius dwelled in the citadel, where the temple of Juno Moneta is now. Tatius was killed by the Laurentes in the fifth year after he had come to the city; this occurred in the 27th Olympiad. Numa at first lived on the Collis Quirinalis. Later he lived near the temple of Vesta , in the palace which to this day has the same name.

Numa reigned for forty-three years and is buried under Janiculum. He reigned for thirty-two years, and died in the 35th Olympiad. He reigned for twenty-four years; he died in the 41st Olympiad. He reigned thirty-seven years. He reigned for twenty-five years. Pictor believes it was during the 8th; Nepos and Lutatius , seconding the opinions of Eratosthenes and Apollodorus , think it was founded in the second year of the 7th Olympiad. Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius hold out for the third year of the 6th Olympiad.

After comparing the judgments of us Romans with those of the Greeks, I conclude that Rome was founded at the beginning of the 7th Olympiad , years after the capture of Troy. Iphitus the Elean renewed it years after the destruction of Troy , and therefore we count the first Olympiad from Iphitus. Thus, allowing six Olympiads each of which is reckoned at four years in between, since Rome was founded at the beginning of the 7th, it remains that there were years between the capture of Troy and the foundation of our city.

Having multiplied by four, one arrives at an answer of years, to which the first year of the 7th Olympiad must be added. In total, the number of years equals After the 24 years of the six Olympiads which went before are subtracted, it is clear that years remain. The Board of Ten was created in the nd year. The First Punic War began in the th year, the Second in the th year, and the Third in the th.

The war with the Allies began in the nd. Hirtius and C. Pansa became consuls in the th year. During their consulship, the year-old Caesar Augustus was himself made consul. His principate was begun in such a way that through his vigilance the Empire remained both untroubled and safe.

As the wars were in respite, doubtless this was so the works of virtue should not become weak through the idle holiday. For before Caesar Augustus , the year was reckoned in an uncertain way. Among the Egyptians it was defined as having four months; among the Arcadians three, and among the Acarnanians six. In Italy , among the people of Lavinium , it was reckoned as having thirteen.

Their year is said to have had days. On the first day of the year they kindled fire on the altar of Vesta , and changed their old bay-wreaths for green. The Senate and the people held elections, and the mistresses served dinner to their slaves, just as masters did at the Saturnalia. The mistresses did this so they might encourage better service by the reward; the masters, as it were, did it so they might reward the slaves for completed work. It can be neatly proved that March was the first month: the fifth month from it was called Quintilis , and when the full number was passed through, 36 December completed the annual circuit within days.

For at that time that number of days finished the year, as six months had 30 days and the remaining four had The resulting 57 days were divided into two months, one of which was 29 days long, and the other Later it was by chance perceived that the year was wrongly confined within the boundaries I mentioned above, as the path of the sun clearly did not finish the course of the Zodiac before the th day, overflowing even to another quarter of a day.

They lauded the accuracy of the odd number, which Pythagoras teaches it is fitting to prefer in everything. However, the times were not made perfectly equal with any certainty. The power of the addition was handed over to the priests, who, for a price, mostly acceded to the reasonings of the taxgatherers, and shortened or lengthened the times as they wished. Sometimes the months which were wont to be in winter came into their time in either summer or autumn.

By this means, the months were drawn back to their accustomed times, and the seasons could keep to their appointed order. Even then the priests made a mistake. This fault Augustus corrected; he ordered that 12 years pass without addition, so the three days which had been rashly added over the necessary 9 could be reconciled.

By this amendment, a system was established for all times after. Thus it is not easy to tell whether he was more unhappy or more blessed. Soon after, there was the burdensome power of Antony in the Triumvirate, the battle of Philippi , and the ill-will which arose from the resulting proscriptions.

Then there were the shipwrecks at Sicily , and his shameful lurking in a cave there, the many seditions of his troops and the anxiety at Perusia. Then there was the disgrace of his granddaughter no less a shame than the other and accusations of causing the deaths of her sons.

After his own children were lost, there was the grief of childlessness. There was the pestilence in the city, famine in Italy , military difficulties in the Illyrian War, his ill health, the abusive discord with his step-son Nero , the unfaithful plots of his wife and also of Tiberius , and many other things of the same sort. Lest this seem like a mere accident which had befallen, the imminent evil was portended by certain signs.

This monstrous fecundity foreshadowed the future calamity. Howbeit the author Trogus affirms that in Egypt seven were brought forth together at one birth, this is no great miracle. For in that country, the Nile with its fruitful water makes not only the fields on the land thrive, but also the wombs of women. Whence, I think it proper to go on from here to examine the begetting of Man. The monthly courses of women, as is observed by many, are justly to be accounted among the marvellous.

Iron is attacked by rust, copper becomes black. If any dogs taste it, they become enraged into a frenzy; anyone injured by their bites becomes mad. Bitumen from Judaea , which is produced at Lake Asphaltites , is very sticky, and has a gluey pliability; it cannot be dissipated. It is impossible to divide it -- if you wish to break it into parts, the whole will certainly stay together, as it extends as far as it is stretched out.

But when the threads are brought near to the polluted blood, they are easily separated. When the noxious fluid is placed near any material, it is dissipated. The sudden division comes about through the tenacity being joined to the contagion. The brightness of mirrors is spoiled by their aspect; offended, the mirror becomes dulled, and the quenched lustre loses its customary reflection of faces.

The beauty of the gloss becomes obscured by darkness. Others, by dint of changing husbands, are able to leave sterility behind. Some bear only once; others bear only males or only females. By the age of 50, the fertility of all women is stilled, but men in the 80th year can still procreate, as in the case of King Masinissa.

He begot his son Mathumannus in his 76th year. Cato , when he was exactly 80 years old, begot the grandfather of the Utican Cato with the daughter of his client Salonis. Nevertheless, it seems that these two were born at the same interval at which they were conceived. This Iphicles fathered Iolaus , who, after he went to Sardinia , and by blandishments persuaded the fearful minds of the inhabitants into concordance, built Olbia and other Greek towns.

If natural processes prevail, the pregnant mother will be troubled by pain on the tenth day from conception. From this time she will become restless in mind, and her sight will dim with darkness. Also the desire of her stomach lessens and she begins to loathe food. All agree that it is the heart which is first formed of all the flesh.

It grows until the 65th day, and then diminishes. First of all the bones is the backbone. Because of this, it endangers life if either of these parts are harmed. Also the baby begins to stir from the 40th day. A female first quivers after the 96th day.

The conception of a female dyes the countenance of the pregnant mother with pallor. Also it hinders her legs with a faint lethargy. The sickness is exacerbated when the moon is full; this time is always harmful until the birth happens.

If the pregnant mother eats rather salty food, the child is born without nails. When the proper time for the birth draws near, it best suits the woman in labour to hold her breath, since yawning causes a lethal delay, suspending the birth. These same mostly lead unfortunate lives, and die young;. Nevertheless, one could hardly say he was completely untouched by hardship. It is rather that he had less of adversity than of good fortune.

By the wretched pain of his feet, by the open adultery of his wife and by several other unhappinesses he paid for the foretoken of his inverted birth. This is when the child is born with the vulva grown together. In this way were the genitalia of Cornelia , mother of the Gracchi -- she atoned for the portent by the unlucky death of her children. Some in turn are armed with solid teeth which are one continual bone, such as the son of King Prusias of Bithynia.

Of those who have pairs of projecting teeth, if the double is on the right side, it gives hope of good fortune. In those whom the double is on the left, it is the opposite. I know of only one who laughed in the same hour as he was born, namely, Zoroaster , who became extremely skilled in the arts.

Heraclitus and Diogenes the Cynic never yielded from their hardness of spirit. Trampled upon by the whirlwind of fortune, they continued unchanged in their purpose against all sorrow and compassion. Among other examples is that of Antonia , wife of Drusus , who did not succumb to enticements to spit. I have heard of several born with hardened bones, who were not accustomed either to sweat or to thirst. Lygdamus the Syracusan is said to have been of such a sort.

He was the first, in the 33rd Olympiad , to carry away the crown of the gymnastic contest. His bones were found to have no marrow in them. The thicker they are, strength is all the more ready to grow. Varro , in his report about unnatural strength, notes that there was a gladiator called Tritannus, who wore the Samnite armour, who had sinews both straight across and athwart his hands and arms, as well as his breast, like lattice. In conflicts, he conquered all his adversaries with a light touch, almost carelessly.

He fought an enemy who challenged him, overcame him with his unarmed right hand and with one finger carried him back as a captive to the camp of his own general. Milo of Crotona is also reported to have done many things above the power of humans.

It is even said that he felled a bull at a blow from his bare hands, and that he willingly consumed the entire victim on the day which he had killed it. Of this there is no doubt, for there exists an inscription in witness of the deed. He died the victor of all competitions. It is found in the bellies of fowls: they say it is suitable for fighting cocks. Milo shone in the age of Tarquinius Priscus.

Sometimes we observe likenesses between relatives. By means of offspring, passages make them in families, just as small children frequently bear moles or scars, or some other mark of their ancestors. This was so among the Lepidi , of whom three from the same house although not in direct succession were found to have been born with a membrane drawn across the eye.

He had a mother who was the daughter of a bastard Ethiopian , and although she in no way resembled her father, he himself begot children in the likeness of his Ethiopian grandfather. A certain Artemon , a low-born Syrian, of similar appearance, pretended to be King Antiochus.

The actor Rubrius so resembled the orator Lucius Plancus that he was even called Plancus by the people. Marcus Messala , who had been a Censor, and one Menogenes , who was from the commonplace dregs of society, were so similar in appearance that no matter which was seen, people thought Messala to be none other than Menogenes , and Menogenes to be none other than Messala. They resembled one another in the same impediment of speech, namely, in the natural obstacle of slowness in bringing forth words.

When a certain Toranius sold two boys of extraordinary beauty as twins to the triumvir Antonius for , sestertii, he had acquired one from Transalpine Gaul and the other from Asia. Indeed, they might have been believed to be twins, had not their speech betrayed them. Antonius was angry at being deceived,. It was, he said, no marvel for real twins to be alike, but that these two could be born more alike than twins, with such a great distance separating them, could not be priced at any value.

Their remains are yet to be seen in the sepulchre of the Sallusts. But years before Augustus , no-one of such a sort appeared, just as after Claudius , no-one of a like sort was seen. His bones they were discovered in Tegea in the 58th Olympiad by the Spartans , who had been advised by an oracle were seven cubits long. Also, writings summon faithful memories from antiquity of an incident in the Cretan war. Lucius Flaccus the legate and even Metellus himself desired to see it.

People refuted the marvel as hearsay, but they saw it with their own eyes. However, he was slow of gait, dull-witted, and boisterous of voice; he matured too soon and was immediately beset by many ills. He paid for his swift growth by falling prey to all manner of sicknesses. Therefore, the natural philosophers judge Man to be a little world.

Whence, one is more suitable for gesticulating, and the other is more suited to bearing burdens. If ever the bodies of those killed are borne up by the waves, those of men float face up and those of women float face down. A certain Ladas gained the first award for speed. He was accustomed to run so fast above loose dust that the sand still hovered, and there was no evidence of his footprints. Because of this, he was immediately induced by the leader of his people to compete in the 46th Olympiad.

He was victor in the race, and won the crown. Anystis the Laconian and Philonides , couriers of Alexander the Great, ran the stades from Sicyon to Elis in one day, without halt. In the year that Fonteius and Vispanus were consuls, an eight year old boy in Italy ran 65 miles between noon and evening. From the watch tower at Lilybaeum he was able to accurately note the number of ships in Punic fleet which had just left Carthage. Callicrates carved some ants out of ivory; it was not possible to distinguish them from the real ones in the portico.

They have twin pupils in their eyes, and if they look angrily at someone, they can kill by a glance. They also live in Sardinia. He was Tribune of the Plebs a little while after the expulsion of the kings, when Sp. Tarpeius and A. Arterius were consuls. He, eight times victor in challenges, had 45 scars in front, and no mark on his back. He captured spoils from the enemy 34 times.

He followed nine other generals in their triumphs; they had conquered because of his work. The first time he was wounded 32 times in front; the second time he lost his right hand in battle. Because of this, he afterwards made himself an iron hand, and although neither hand was much use for fighting, he fought four times in one day and conquered with the left hand.

He had two horses slain under him.. During the 20 months when he endured the fate of bondage, he was not for one moment without shackles and chains. He was rewarded with military honours in all the harshest battles the Romans experienced in those times. He carried away civil crowns from Trasimene , Trebia and Ticinus ; also from Cannae , from which it was accounted an extraordinary feat merely to have escaped.

He alone received a crown. Surely blessed would he be, with so many votes of glory, had not his heir Cataline, in the succession of his posterity, darkened his prizes with his hated name. In his generalships, 1,, of the enemy were slain.

He was unwilling to note how many he routed during the Civil Wars. He fought 52 times in pitched battles. Besides this, no-one wrote more swiftly, no-one read more quickly; he could dictate four letters at once. He was even endowed with kindness: those whom he had defeated in battle were further conquered by his clemency. In the army which he captained, which was most numerous, he could address each man by name. Lucius Scipio did the same thing among the Romans.

But we may believe that Cyrus and Scipio did it out of habit, while Cineas , the ambassador of Pyrrhus , greeted both the Equestrian order and the Senate by their own names on the day after he had come to Rome. Mithridates , the Pontic king, ministered justice without an interpreter to the 22 nations he governed.

Plainly, memory is governed by practice, as we see in the case of Metrodorus the philosopher, who lived in the time of Diogenes the Cynic. He carried himself forward so much by regular practicing that he not only remembered the speech of many people speaking at once, but also the order of the words.

I heard that someone struck by a stone forgot how to read. Certainly, Messala Corvinus , after an illness which he endured, was stricken to forgetfulness of his own name, notwithstanding how much his senses throve previously. Fear is in turn sometimes a stimulant for speech. Not only does fear incite speech in normal circumstances, but it can also wrench speech from those who were formerly dumb.

Excellence stands out the most in two cases. Firstly, in the case of Cato , founder of the gens Porcia , who was an excellent senator, orator and general. He was arraigned 44 times, because he had striven in the hostile rivalry of hatred, but he was always acquitted. Praise for this man is more favourably disposed.

He, going beyond those things for which Cato was famous, also excelled in public favour. Of course, none could be found worthier than he to be entrusted with the office of special religion, since the oracle warned that the sacred ceremonies of the mother of the Gods should be brought from Pessinus. Among them were three orators in succession. Certainly it was a great thing in those times, when eloquence was especially marveled at both in men and in gods.

By this ploy alone Pindar escaped the impending danger. When he was about to enter the house of Poseidonius , then the most famous teacher of wisdom, he forbade the lictor to strike on the door, as the custom was. Lowering the fasces, although he was victorious in the East and had subdued Mithridates , he yielded of his own will to the door of learning. Ennius to be put in his tomb. The Utican Cato brought one philosopher to Rome when he was a military tribune, and another when he was ambassador to Cyprus.

He declared that by these deeds he had bestowed much on the Senate and the people, even if his ancestor had very often recommended that the Greeks should be driven from the city. This woman was of low birth, and therefore of obscure fame. When she was allowed to go to her father who was confined in prison, as a punishment she was searched many times by the gaolers, lest she by chance had brought food for him.

But later she was discovered feeding him from her breasts. For the father, who was condemned to death, was spared because he was given a memory of such praise by his daughter. The place was set aside as a shrine to the god of Piety. But Sulpicia , daughter of Paterculus and wife of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus , was chosen she was carefully selected by the matrons, from the hundred most esteemed women to dedicate the image of Venus , as the Sybilline Books advised.

Cornelius Sulla was said to have been happier than he actually was. The Delphic Oracle judged one Aglaus alone to be blessed; he was the owner of a meagre plot in the narrowest niche in Arcadia , and he was never found to have gone forth from the boundaries of his ancestral ground. About Man I have said enough. First, I will visit Italy , the splendour of which I have already touched upon in writing of the city of Rome. There is the famed glory of the old towns, built by the Aborigines, the Aurunci , the Pelasgians , the Arcadians , the Sicilians , then by migrants from all over Greece, and lastly by the victorious Romans.

Who does not know that Pompeii was founded in Campania by Hercules himself, because thence, after his victories in Spain, he had led his procession of cattle? Or that Ionia takes its name from Ione , the daughter of Aulochus, whom they say Hercules slew, as she impudently sat down in the road? Or that Archippe was founded by Marsyas , king of the Lydians , and was destroyed by being swallowed up into an opening in the ground, into the Fucine Lake?

Who does not know that the port of Parthenius was founded by the Phocians? In Italy he begot three more children: Tibertus, Coras and Catillus ; he expelled from Sicilia the old inhabitants of the town, the Sicani , and called it by the name of the eldest brother, Tibertus. Soon after, the temple of Minerva in Bruttium was built by Ulysses. Parthenope , which Augustus later preferred to be called Neapolis , took its name from the tomb of the Siren Parthenopa situated in that place.

Praeneste , as Zenodotus writes, was named after Praenestus, grandson of Ulysses and son of Latinus. On the other hand, the books of the Praenestines say the city was founded by Caeculus, whom, as the tale goes, the sisters of the Digidii came upon hard by a fortuitous fire.

Heretum was founded by the Greeks in honour of Hera for thus the Greeks call Juno. Aricia was founded by Archilochus the Sicilian , from whom, as it pleases Hemina to say, the name was derived. Metaurum was established by the Zanclenses ; Metapontum , which, as Bocchus asserts, is now Vibo , was established by the Locrians.

He pitched his camp in a Laurentine field. Here he dedicated an image, which he had carried out of Sicily , to his mother Venus , who is called Frutis, and received the Palladium from Diomedes. Next, he accepted iugera from Latinus , and reigned for three years in conjunction with him. The name Father Indiges was given to him. In Cumae is the shrine of the Sibyl who was involved in Roman affairs in the 50th Olympiad , and whose Book was consulted by our priests up until the time of Cornelius Sulla.

The two previous Books the Sibyl had herself burned, as Tarquinius Superbus had offered her a meaner price than she asked for them. Her tomb remains in Sicily to this day. Several years after her came Herophile of Erythrae , who was also called Sibyl , because of the similarity of her talents. Among other magnificent things, she forewarned that the Lesbians would lose dominion of the sea, long before it came to pass. Thus the sequence of time itself shows that the Cumaean Sibyl was the third.

It extends between the Tuscan and the Adriatic , that is, between the upper and lower seas. In shape it is similar to an oak-leaf, namely, wider in length than in breadth. One shore does not receive the onset of the sea which insinuates between these projections; the open sea is admitted separated by spurs, which jut out like projecting tongues.

Then there are the Regian woodlands, the valleys of Paestum , the rocks of the Sirens , the charming tracts of Campania , and the Phlegraean plains. There is Tarracina , and the house of Circe , once an island encircled by the boundless sea, but now, in the fullness of time, attached to the mainland.

It experienced the opposite fortune to the Regini , whom the sea, by insinuating itself between, violently separated from the Sicilians. Also there is Formiae , which was inhabited by the Laestrygones , and much more beside, which I thought best to pass over, rather than taking the risk of pursuing in an unsatisfactory fashion. The breadth, at the widest point, is miles, and at the narrowest point, miles. The centre of Italy , as Varro set forth, is in the Reatine fields.

The circumference of the whole is miles. The second, having begun from Lacinium , has its end at Acroceraunium. The Padus first hurls itself forward from this spring, which can be seen on the borders of Liguria ; after being submerged in an underground tunnel, it rises in the fields of Vibo.

Padus is not lesser in fame than any river, and is called Eridanus by the Greeks. It becomes swollen at its source at the rising of the Dogstar , with the melting snows and dissolving hoar-frosts of winter, and is augmented by the inflow of other waters. Padus carries 30 rivers into the Adriatic Sea. They make a yearly sacrifice to Apollo on Mount Soracte, in the course of which they dance with impunity in burning heaps of wood, making religious gestures.

The flames yield in honour of the divinity. The Senate have honoured their devotion magnificently; the Hirpi were given perpetual freedom from all services. They regard their family as being descended from the son of Circe ; because of this ancestral power, they know that they ought to hold poisons in servitude.

For this reason, they disdain poisons. Circe settled in the Circean mountains, and there with sorceries invented sundry contrivances to do with charms and phantoms. Since she gave her life to men, she is regarded as a goddess. There are numerous vipers with incurable bites in Italy.

They are shorter than those which are found in other parts of the world; they harm all the more easily when, for this reason, they are deemed contemptible. First, the boa hunts herds of cattle , and he fastens himself to the udder of whichever cow is watered with the most milk. Fattened by continual sucking, he swells to such a state of satiety that no force is able to withstand his magnitude. Having plundered the animals, he brings the regions which he takes possession of to desolation.

Regarded by a baleful gaze, he does not have the use of his voice, even though he may wish to shout. When he fears to be caught after being injured, the wolf willingly casts away this tuft, but it does not have the power unless it is pulled from the wolf while he is alive.

Wolves do not breed on more than twelve days per year in total. In famines, they feed on the earth. Heedless of the present abundance, they go searching for the satiety they left behind. The urine of the lynx is said to collect and harden into precious stones by those who have narrowly investigated the nature of stones.

That this is known to the lynxes themselves is proved by this example: when they discharge liquid, they immediately cover it, as much as they are able, with hillocks of sand. No doubt they do this from spite, lest such matter as issues from them be useful to us. As Theophrastus holds, these stones are the colour of amber.

The substance attracts by a breath things that are near at hand. It cures diseases of the kidneys and assuages the jaundice; it is called luncurium. This silence is a marvel, and not to be deplored, since the neighbouring Locrian cicadas make more noise than all the rest. Granius relates the reason for their silence: when they were murmuring in protest at Hercules , who was resting there, the god ordered them not to make such a loud noise.

From that day, the silence which then began has remained. When they are removed from their origins and finally raised into the upper world, they become as rocks. Not only their quality but also their colour is altered, for they immediately blush crimson. Their little branches are such as we see on trees, mostly half a foot long. It is rare to find one a foot long. From these plants are fashioned many things for the adornment of the body.

For this reason, whatever may come from it, it is deemed wholesome. Metrodorus also affirms that it resists typhoons and lightning bolts. In a part of Lucania a gemstone with a very beautiful appearance may be dug up. It is saffron in colour, and it has stars inside it, which are dim, as though shining under a cloud. Since it was first discovered on the shores of the Syrtes , it is called the Syrtian stone.

Its colour is black, which, with beautiful contrast, is intersected by white tracks and marks. Their shape is almost the same as that of a coot; they are white in colour, their eyes are fiery, and they have toothed bills. There are two leaders who rule the onrush: one goes in front of the column and the other brings up the rear — the former that he might lead a direct route and the latter that he might urge on the tardy. This is the discipline of their traveling.

Thus they cover up the space hollowed out underneath. Lest these lids be found wanting, and the wooden hollows carried away by chance winds, the birds press down the pile with the earth they dug out when raising their wells. It is not done fortuitously -- they mark out the entrances and exits according to the regions of the heavens.

The opening that dismisses them to the feeding grounds is open to the east, and that which receives them is situated towards the west; thus, light rouses them, and does not deny them for their retreat. For the relieving of their bellies, they fly upwards in adverse winds, so their bodily discharges may be blown further away from them.

Those who are Greek they permit to approach, and as far as it is to be understood, they fawn coaxingly upon them as countrymen. If they are of another race, they rush upon them and attack. They frequent the sacred shrine every day, and their zeal takes this form: they wet their feathers with water, and they flock together with thoroughly soaked and dewy wings.

By shaking off the moisture, they purify the shrine. Then they clap their wings and depart, as though they have completed their worship. Certainly, before the advent of the Aetolian leader, they did not go by the name of Diomedes , but thenceforth they have been called thus. Dalmatia extends to the Illyrian border, on which coast the Dardanians have their home.

These men have been brutalized from their Trojan lineage into barbarous customs. Here the Phocaeans , having at one time been driven into exile by the advent of the Persians , built the city of Massilia in the 45th Olympiad. This river, cast down from the Alps , first runs through the territory of the Helvetii , dragging streams of running waters with it. It increases by a great amount, and becomes more turbulent than the sea itself, which it invades, except when the sea is raised.

Rodanus rages even when the weather is calm, and for this reason it is reckoned one of the three greatest rivers of Europe. Once this was the winter quarters of a consul, and later the waters were improved by walls. Their heat, which once breathed out sharply, evaporated over time, and now they do not enjoy their prior fame.

If we have a mind to the Greeks, it is best to consider the Tarentine coast. Thence, from that promontory which they call Acra Iapygia , is the shortest voyage to Achaia. Other lands call on me, and it would be tedious to travel slowly along the shores of all the islands which face the promontories of Italy.

These islands are scattered in the most delightful nooks, and seem arranged by Nature as a show lest they be omitted. Among these islands is Corsica , of which many have written fairly extensively, after having traveled around it. They have completed their narratives with the fullest diligence, and nothing has been omitted which it would not be superfluous to undertake anew. But let these things pass. It is larger than other stones used for decorative purposes, and is not so much a gemstone as a common rock.

It holds down hands placed upon it, attaching itself to adjoining bodies in such a way that those which it touches stick to it. There is in it I know not what — a kind of very sticky glue, like gum. It is to no purpose, therefore, to write that Sardus was begotten by Hercules , Norax by Mercury , and that the one traveled into this country from Libya , and the other all the way from Tartessus in Spain.

Or that the name was given to the land by Sardus , and to the town Nora by Norax. So we may pass over these things, as well as Iolaus , who settled the land in those regions, and also the Ilienses and Locrenses , let us note that Sardinia is truly without serpents.

This is a very small creature with the shape of a spider , and it is called by this name because it flees daylight. It is found mostly in silver-mines for the soil of Sardinia is rich in silver ; it crawls secretly, and calls down pestilence on those who sit upon it unawares. If eaten by people who are ignorant of it, it tightens the muscles and divides the mouth into a rictus, so that those who thus meet death die with the appearance of laughter.

The lakes have a great abundance of fish. The winter showers are saved for the summer scarcity, for the Sardinian man has much wealth as regards rainy skies. They consume collected water, and it suffices for use where there are no bubbling rills. Springs, hot and wholesome, well up in many places.

For whosoever denies a theft with an oath, and washes his eyes with these waters sees more clearly if he has not perjured himself. If a man falsely denies perfidy, his crime is revealed by blindness; captured by his eyes, he is driven to confess. Pachynus guides its view towards the Peloponnese and the southern region; Pelorias , facing the west, watches Italy , and Lilybaeum stretches out towards Africa.

Of these, Pelorias stands forth; it is praised for the unparalleled moderation of its soil, which is neither turned into mud by the moisture of swamps, nor cracked open into dust by drought. That the first of these is abundant in fish, I do not, for my part, consider marvellous. But near to the lake, the land is thick with trees, and the groves of brushwood nurture wild beasts. Hunters and others on foot are given access by means of paths.

Thus the lake offers the double pleasure of fishing and hunting, and can be numbered among the admirable features of this land. Upon the way proceeding to it, the water is leg-deep. What is beyond it is neither permitted to explore nor touch. He who dares to do so is punished by misfortune, and how quickly he goes to ruin is gauged by how much of himself he immerses in the water.

They say that a certain man threw a line as far as he could into these depths, and when he assuaged the labour of recovering it by dipping his arm into the water, his hand became rotten. The town Messana is placed opposite to Regium in Italy. Among them was Daedalus , the expert craftsman. Sicily has its chief city in Syracuse , where the weather is tranquil even when it is winter, and there is no day without sun. Add to this that the Spring of Arethusa is in this city.

Aetna is sacred to Vulcan , and Eryx to Venus. Loud noises precede it, rolled in different directions, with extended roaring, through the seething hiding-places of the caverns, in the bowels of the earth. Balls of fire do not lift themselves on high before internal uproar has occurred. There is an unconquerable violence in both: the heat is not mitigated by the cold, not the cold melted by the heat.

On the Neptunian is a watchtower which looks into the Tuscan and Adriatic seas. Nebrodes takes its name from the fallow deer and fawns which wander there in flocks. The fruits of the earth are excelled by Centuripan saffron. Comedy was first invented here, and here the badinage of mimicry remained on the stage. The house of Archimedes is here. He, familiar with the science of the stars, was an engineer and a maker of siege engines. Here was Lais , the woman who preferred to choose her country rather than to confess.

Of this country was Ceres , the teacher of cultivation and fruit-nurturing. In the same place is the Field of Henna , which is always in flower, and vernal every day. Between Catina and Syracuse there is rivalry concerning the story of some famous brothers.

Nevertheless, the locality gives the cause of the deed to the Catinenses. When the fires of Aetna burst out, the two young men lifted up their parents and carried them through the flames, unhurt by the conflagration. Their memory was given to posterity, as the place where their tombs are was named the Field of Piety. The river Acis , although it comes down from Aetna , is colder than all.

The zones of the heavens change the River Himera ; it is bitter when it flows into the north, and it is sweet when it curls towards the south. If you put salt from Agrigentum in the fire, it is dissolved by the burning; if water draws near, it crackles as though it is being burned. Aetna produces salt of a dark red colour; that found at Pachynus is transparent.

In the place where the hot springs are is an island with an abundance of reeds. They are very good for producing the sounds of all pipes — whether you make praecentoriae, which are for playing before couches of the gods, or vascae, which have more holes than praecentoriae, or maiden-pipes, which are called so because of their clear sound, or gingrinae, which, although they are shorter, nevertheless produce a finer sound, or milvinae, which issue the sharpest sound.

These reeds are likewise good for making the Lydian pipes, which are also called turariae, or the Corinthian , or the Aegyptian, or others, which musicians differentiate by function and name. If pipes are sounded, it rises up, exulting at the singing; it swells beyond its banks as though marveling at the sweetness of the voice.

Also in that place are two springs. One, if a barren woman drinks of it, she is made fertile; the other, if a fertile woman drinks of it, she becomes sterile. Oil floats on the surface of the Agrigentine Lake. Because of their constant wallowing therein, the fat sticks to the foliage of the reeds. Men who are sacrificing to the god go there and strew vine wood upon the altar.

Fire is not placed near the heap. If the god is present when they carry in the carved meat, and the sacrifice is approved, the twigs, although green, catch fire. The kindling is done by the deity himself, without any burning breath. It is nothing less than an image, a message that the rite has been correctly and completely performed.

In the same Agrigentine field, muddy springs violently well up. The veins of the springs provide water to the streams; thus, in this part of Sicily , the soil is never deficient. The land vomits out land with eternal rejections. Agate is of no small value if it is found there, for the intersecting veins inscribe natural shapes upon it. When it is the best, the images of many things are displayed. The ring of King Pyrrhus who waged war against the Romans , which was not of obscure fame, came from there.

Its gem was an agate, in which the nine Muses , with their distinguishing marks, and Apollo , holding his cithara, could be seen. The figures were not stamped there, but were made by nature. Crete yields what they call coral agate, which is similar to coral, but is smeared all over with specks that sparkle like gold, and it resists the attacks of scorpions. India gives agates which are good for the eyes to look at.

They have in them now the shapes of groves, now of animals. If these stones are taken into the mouth, they allay thirst. Blood agates are red with blood-like spots. But the agates which are most sought after, such as the Cyprian ones, have a clearness resembling that of glass; those which have a waxy appearance are abundant and are commonly ignored.

The circuit of this entire island is completed in stadia. The fires are either borrowed from Aetna , or supplied through some hidden trade. This place was consecrated as the seat of the God of Fire. The islands are seven in number.

They call another of the islands Hiera. It is especially sacred to Vulcan , and it has an exceedingly high hill which blazes most at night. It faces towards the sunrise; it is the least angular island, and its flames appear more liquid than those of the rest. Chiefly from the smoke, the inhabitants know three days beforehand which winds will blow; for this reason, Aeolus was believed king of the winds.

The others, Didyme , Eriphusa, Phoenicusa and Euonymon are so similar, I have to all intents and purposes described them already. On this coast, in the country of the Molossians , where the temple of Dodonaean Jupiter is, is Mount Talarus. It is famous, as Theopompus asserts, for the hundred springs around its roots. For if a burning torch is immersed in it, the torch is extinguished, but if you remove the torch to a distance, it rekindles of its own accord.

Delphi is celebrated for the river Cephisos , for the spring Castalia , and for Mount Parnasus. Acarnania is famous for Mount Aracynthus. The mountain Pindus divides this country from Aetolia , and gives birth to the river Achelous , gifted of old with renown as being among the chief rivers of Greece. This is not unworthy praise, since galactitis is found among the pebbles which glitter on its banks.

Galactitis is a little black stone; if it is rubbed, it exudes a white juice tasting of milk. If it is bound to children, it causes them to swallow more saliva, and if it taken into the mouth, it melts. When, however, it is spat out, it kills the gift of memory. Besides by the Nile , this stone is given only by Achelous , and not by any other. It is renowned for no other reason than it is almost inaccessible to the rays of the sun. Taenaron is also the name of a promontory facing Africa.

Here the shrine of Arion of Methymna is situated. Arion , as his brazen image is witness, was carried hither by a dolphin. The image shows the likeness of his plight and of his true exploit. In addition, the time is designated on the statue. It is the 29th Olympiad , in which the same Arion is written as victor at the Sicilian contest. So the deed itself is proven. There are several other cities in Laconia. Among them is Leuctra , which is today not unheard of, owing to the disgraceful end the Lacedaemonians made there in times gone by.

Mount Taygetus and the river Eurotas are so well known they do not require a written description. King Inachus named it after himself. He was the founder of the Argive nobility. It is enough to remember that it gave the name to our own Palatine through Evander the Arcadian.

In Arcadia also are the mountains Cyllene and Lycaeus. Then there is Maenalus , illuminated by the gods who were nursed there. Mount Erymanthus is not obscure. Among the rivers is Erymanthus , which is cast down from Mount Erymanthus , and Ladon , the former famous because of a fight of Hercules , and the latter because of Pan.

There is something worth relating about the birds in this same place. Although in other places, blackbirds are dusky, around Cyllene they are a very bright white. Its name is asbestos, and it is the colour of iron. If it is set on fire, it cannot be quenched. The Isthmus is famous for the four-yearly games and the temple of Neptune. These games, they say, were instituted in remembrance of the five coasts of the Peloponnese , washed against by five seas: the Ionian in the north, the Sicilian in the west, the Aegean in the south-east, the Myrtoan in the north-east, and the Cretan in the south.

The games were stopped by the tyrant Cypselus , but were restored to their former solemnity by the Corinthians in the 49th Olympiad. It is fashioned like the leaf of a plane-tree, with recesses and promontories. It makes a point of separation between the Ionian and Aegean seas, called the Isthmus because of its narrowness; the thin walk between either shore is not more than four miles. What is now called Attica was previously known as Acte. Athens is situated here. The Scironian Rocks are close to this city.

They extend for six miles, and were thus named in honour of Theseus the Avenger and the notable punishment. There are Icarius , Brilessus , Lycabettus and Aegialus , but first place is by right given, and deservedly, to Hymettus. This is because it is especially abundant in flowers, and the excellent taste of its honey conquers that of all the honeys from its own and other lands.

The place of judgement for the Athenians is in the Arios pagos [ Areopagos ]. The plain of Marathon was made famous by report of a most bloody battle fought there. Salamis , Sunium , Ceos and Coos are almost suburbs of the city. Coos , as Varro testifies, was the first to make fine garments for women by the science of spinning.

Amphion founded Thebes , not by commanding the stones with his lyre for it is not likely that the deed should be done thus , but by coaxing the wild inhabitants of the rocks who had uncouth customs with sweet speech, towards the discipline of civil allegiance.

But before the other springs are Aganippe and Hippucrene. The liberty of the poets was thus kindled: in their writings it is set down that one of these springs was opened by the hoof of the winged horse , and that the other, when drunk, gave literary inspiration. This haven is recounted over the ages as the memorial to the Greek confederacy.

The river Cephisos flows through their territory and pours itself into the sea. There is also Ramne , in which is a shrine of Amphiaraus and the image of Diana made by Phidias. If a herd of sheep drinks from one of them, their fleeces become coloured. If a herd drinks from the other, any dark fleeces become white. Whereas the partridges everywhere are certainly free, as are all birds, in Boeotia they are not.

They cannot fly where they will, but have boundaries in the very air which they do not dare to cross. They never fly forth from their borders, and thus do not traverse Attic soil. What is common to all partridges, we will now pursue. Partridges make nests with clever defences.

They clothe the exits of the nests with thorny bushes, so the animals which harass them are warded off by the harsh prongs. The females repeatedly move the eggs about to cheat the males, who often crush them with their impatient flattering. The males fight for mates, and it is believed that the losers have to let the victors treat them like females. The females are so agitated by sexual lust, that if a breeze blows from the males, they are made pregnant by the smell.

They assume a weakness of foot or wing seeming as though they might by and by be caught and counterfeit a limping walk. This fraud incites their enemies, and baffles them, until, enticed for a long while, they are diverted from the nests.

When they begin to perceive that they themselves are seen, they cast themselves on their backs, and lift little clods of earth with their feet. They are so cleverly concealed by these that they escape notice even when seized. Hellen , the king for whom the Hellenes were named, was born here.

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