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If the Mons Claudianus terracotta is clothed, it may be seated rather than standing and be one of t.. Several fragments of these seated beneficent demons come from the site see Figs It is broken from a beneficent demon figure like those mentioned above, seated and with the hands held wide to protect and bless its owner, his family and his property.
The head comes from the southern rubbish-dump outside the fort at Mons Claudianus, and is Trajanic or later, within the second century. The head is close to one in Frankfurt, attached to a body to which it does not belong and which is of the fourth century CE Bayer-Niemeier , No. The head also is not unlike that of a standing but naked figure in Cairo Dunand , No. The one illustrated, which is 4. Figures precisely like this have not been traced, but some, mostly servant figures, either cultic or, less likely, secular, have phalluses reaching to the ground.
Harpocrates frequently has his glans resting on the ground, as Fischer , Nos , and there is a possibility that the Mons Claudianus figure is of that deity, but I think it unlikely. Nothing very close to it has been traced, but cult-servants or processional figures, probably devotees of Isis, in the Louvre are similar Dunand , Nos , as is one in Tiibingcn Fischer , No.
They are of the second century CE, Trajanic or later, and one is illustrated here Length 4. There are a considerable number of such figures in museum collections, and it seems very likely that they were used in household shrines: compare Bailey , Q bust of Osiris ; Bayer-Nierneier , No. It is impossible to identify the figures to which our Mons Claudianus examples were attached. BAILEY its date is uncertain within the second century; other fragments of such hounds were also found, from second-century contexts.
Of the illustrated example, a collar for its pendent bell survives, and a join runs up the side of the leg, continuing eventually to the tip of the ear, and it came probably from a three-piece mould, as do examples in the Louvre, where the forepart was made in one mould and the two halves of the body made in further separate moulds Dunand , No. Most ancient terracottas come from two-piece moulds, and three-piece moulds are rare but seemingly not for these hounds.
Two moulds-parts in Cairo come from such tripartite moulds, one for a forepart, the other for a left side of two of these dogs Edgar , pl. XXVII, Several similar terracottas are in Frankfurt Bayer-Niemeier , pl. The Spitz-hound was not the lap-dog it appears to be, but was the Sothic-dog of lsis, connected with the dog-star Sirius, the heliacal rising of which marked the first day of the year and the coming of the inundation. Isis is sometimes shown riding the hound, as Dunand , No.
It is the lack of Harpocrates that is the most surprising factor amongst the terracottas found at Mons Claudianus. As mentioned earlier, Harpocrates is represented more often than any other personage in the terracottas of Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. The nearest we have to the god is perhaps part of a Trajanic-period group with a two-handled pot with a hand holding it not illustrated. Although frequently occur- ring in the Nile Valley, no Bes figures were found: chiidbirth was only a remote possibility at such a site although there is evidence for the existence of women there and his presence was perhaps not required.
As has clearly been shown, the terracottas from Mons Claudianus are a pathetic lot and few in number, but they have the merit of being fairly closely dated, which is more than can be said for most of the terracottas from classical-period Egypt.
They are obviously only a few of the types that reached the fort, as much of it is unexcavated, but they show that popular religion was taken seriously by some of the residents there and that such objects were felt to be worth transporting across the desert, if not as part of an itinerant trader's stock, at least personally by individuals to whom they had spiritual value and integrity.
Nine terracottas from Mons Claudianus no common scale. A propos de quatre recents", Chronique d'E'gypte 70, Perdrizet, P. How does the fact were discarded when broken relate to their religious value? Donald M. Ballet I. Introduction Les travaux, menes depuis une quinzaine d'annees dans les deserts egyptiens de l'ouest et de l'est, ont mis en evidence uncertain nombre de faits eclairant les modes de production des communautes humaines implantees dans ces regions marginales et leurs relations avec la vallee du Nil, le monde mediterraneen et les confins orientaux dependant de la mer Rouge et de la zone des detroits.
Les configurations economiques, liees aux ressources naturelles et a la situation geographique de ces espaces, expliquent sinon! On pourrait resumer ces divergences en quelques mots. Exploitations agricoles dans les oasis du desert libyque, Dakhla et Kharga, exploitation de carrieres et voies de communication dans le desert arabique, ou l'isthme de Coptos, de la boucle du Nil a Myos Hormos, joue un role considerable. Le desert accidental: l'exemple de l'oasis de Kharga A l'epoque romaine, dans les oasis du desert libyque, le mode de fonctionnement economique le plus courant est fonde sur des exploitations agricoles, des fermes, a proximite de gros villages.
Le dossier de I' oasis de Kharga, 1 et tout particulierement celui des villages meridionaux de la depression, nous est progressivement devoile grace a l'etude des textes et aux travaux archeologiques Fig. A Kysis Douch; cf. Redde , un gros bourg fortifie des le Haut-Empire, voire des l'epoque ptoh! Bousquet, 2 a permis de detecter tout un parcellaire irrigue dans la partie basse de Kysis ainsi que dans les villages tout proches de Manawir et de cAin Ziyada, vraisemblablement des le debut de la periode romaine.
Kysis, chef-lieu de toparchie, constitue l'etablissement le plus important de la partie meridionale de! Waqfa , situe sur la piste menant au Soudan, complete ceux de Kysis Douch. Waqfa, Les informations livrees par les ostraca d'cAin Waqfa 1 On consultera avant tout Wagner Un volume portant sur la geomorphologie et l'economie de I' eau sur ce meme site est Bousquet Abou Mina Scete''rl Principaux sites de l'Egypte romaine.
Oasr af. Douch 1-III ; le contenu de ces demiers conceme avant tout, dans le cadre de l'annone militaire, des ordres de paiement, des re9us, des listes de beneficiaires d'attribution et de militaires qui y resident O. Toutefois, il ne faut pas negliger la place de l'oasis dans le reseau des communi- cations unissant l'Egypte au monde soudano-nubien et au Darfour, dont temoignait encore recemment!
L'appreciation de son role de redistributeur reste neanmoins une entreprise delicate, pour laquelle les preuves tangibles manquent encore. Cette introduction assez longue aux problemes que nous souhaitons ici presenter est necessaire a la caracterisation des ceramiques du sud de Kharga. La production y est en effet considerable; en temoignent la presence des cerarniques elles-memes en divers contextes de Kysis et surtout les vestiges d'ateliers de potiers.
A Kysis meme, six secteurs d'ateliers ont ete reperes, dont subsistent la semelle des fours 3 et les depotoirs. Ils sont implantes sur. L'un d'entre eux atelier 1 est date du Haut-Empire Phase 1 , trois autres de la phase de transition Phase 11 du me au debut IVe siecle selon toute vraisemblance Fig.
En revanche, aucun atelier du Bas-Empire avance, plus precisement de la deuxieme moitie du IVe au ye siecle Phase III , n'a ete explicite- ment repere, malgre l'abondance de la ceramique d'epoque romaine tardive dans les niveaux superieurs, les plus recents, de! Toutefois, certains signes de surcuisson semblent caracteriser la cerarnique jonchant la surface du sommet et des pentes du tell, ainsi que nous l'avons observe lors d'une exploration menee en Rodziewicz Les prospections de 3 Seul le grand four de!
Ballet, M. Picon et M. Vichy, lors d'une enquete consacree au reperage des ateliers du nord au sud de Kharga. Ballet et M. Picon, dans Balat Ill, , groupe 8 de la classification d''Ain Asil. Kysis, versant nord. Atelier 2. Phase 11 cliche A. Lecler, IFAO. En revanche, l'hypothese d'un centre de production localise da.. La region septentrionale de I' oasis pourrait en etre l'une des zones productrices: en temoigne la ceramique de!
A ce tableau fonde sur l'examen de Kysis, il faut ajouter d'autres ateliers aux abords du chef-lieu de la toparchie: a Manawir, a l'ouest de Kysis, un depotoir d'atelier de ceramique commune a recouvert, sans doute a partir des ne et me siecles, la partie intime du temple d'epoque perse recemment decouvert par l'IFAO Grimal, ; Chauveau A CAin Ziyada egalement, a l'est de Kysis, des activites de potiers ont ete decouvertes en deux secteurs, au nord et au sud du 7 C'est notamment la these d6fendue par C.
Les donnees relatives aux ateliers et aux ceramiques tardives de! Lcs datations sont difficiles a prec1ser; elles sont indiscutablement de l'epoque romaine, avec une tendance marquee, semble-t-il, pour le Haut-Empire. Dans la sud de Kharga, la presence d'atelicrs de potiers est done liee a! Du nord de Kysis a 'Ain Labakha, sirue a proximite de l'acces septentrional de l'oasis, une exploration a permis d'elargir l'inventaire des ateliers Fig. Bol a pied annulaire. Production locale.
Phase I. Figure 5 a droite. A certains egards, le panorama ceramique revele quelques aspects de la culture materielle des oasis occidentalcs. On adoptc parfois des formes tres proches de celles de la Vallee, voire meme du domaine egeen et nord-africain. Boutros, D. Schade, G. Soukiassian et G. Figure 7 a droite. Jarre a decor peint sur engobe blanc. Production locale ou regionale. Phase Bol "Kharga Red Slip Ware". Production oasiennc.
Phase HI. Figure 9 a droite. Flacon "Kharga Red Slip Ware". Production oasienne. Phase lll. La ceramique commune, jattes et plats, presente quelques traits mohologiques locaux, absents du repertoire de la Vallee. Arrivons maintenant au temoignage de la ceramique conrme indicateur d'echanges. Toutefois, il faut mettre en evidence la place non negligeable qu'occupent les ceramiques d'Assouan. Pendant le Haut-Empire, elles ne sont representees a Douch que par quelques amphores du type produit d;ms i'atelier de l'Aga Khan, sur la rive ouest d'Assouan Fig.
Au Has-Empire, les series assouannaises sont plus abondantes. Petites cruches, bols, assiettes a marli Fig. Elles apparalssent des la p6riode pre ptolemaique. Bouteille a "engobe jaune". Production de Kharga nord. Phase Ill. Figure 11 a droite. Barillet sega. Phase III. Une autre source d'approvisionnement est a localiser dans la Vallee, en Moyenne Egypte.
Le produit concerne est l'amphore vinaire apate alluviale bruneLate Roman Amphora 7 Fig. Bailey dans: Ashmunein , Fig. Leur presence, sporadique, ne parvient pas a modifier le caractere endogene du facies ceramique de Kharga et plus specifiquement de Douch. En conclusion, la capacite des productions cerarniques s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une economie agricole, fondee sur une apparente autarcie et animee d'echanges ceramiques de faible volume.
Du Haut au Bas-Empire, des ateliers de potiers sont integres a ce dispositif rural, temoignant d'une bonne exploitation des ressources naturelles et des moyens humains. La presence d'eau, objet d'une gestion efficace, est plus importante que l'argile, pourtant abondante dans! Assiette a marli peint. Production assouannaise. Amphore assouannaise. Type de I' atelier de 1' Aga Khan. Musee Copte, Vieux-Caire.
No Figure 14 a droite. Amphore Late Roman Amphora 7. Production de Moyenne Egypte. Le desert oriental par les caravanes effectuac'1t la liaison entre le Nil et les ports de la mer le desert de l'est Fig. A la suite de l'annexion de l'Egypte par Rome en 30 ava. Le Nil, le desert oriental et la mer devicnnent les acces a l 'ocean permettant de delaisser les routes moins sures de l' arriere-pays syrien et du nord de la peninsule arabique.
Les Ptolemees avaient deja tente de developper des bases portuaires en mer Rouge, 12 evitant ainsi, dans leurs visees lointaines, les regions sous contr6le seleucide. Les temoignages archeologiques d'epoque hellenistique y sont pourtarrt rares: des etablissemcnts du desert oriental, si! L'une des caracteristiques les plus notables est! Le ravitaillement en produits de base et en mobilier provient de la Vallee ou, eventuellement, de la mer Rouge Ballet , L'origine des ceramiques trouvees au desert oriental rend compte du role considerable joue par les ateliers de la region thebaine a la zone coptite, qui approvision11ent en grande partie les sites de carriers et les pastes de surveillance.
Trois sites peuvent etre n1is en exergue. Le rv1ons Claudianus, dont la publication est en cours, 14 represente l'un des plus gros etablissements romains du desert oriental ayant fait l'objet d'un large programme de fouilles et d'etudes: les ressources lapidaires, constituees principalement de grano-diorite, fournirent en materiaux durables les chantiers de construction du monde accidental et notamment de Rome Peacock L Serontmentionnes ci-dessous lcs articles preliminaires traitant de la ceramique du Mons Claudianus, etudiee par R.
L'integralite du materiel ceramique sera publiec clans un volume actuellcmcnt en preparation. XVH 1, 45 , est rune des stations militaires praesidium controlant les caravanes qui empruntent cctte route. On rcnverra le lecteur aux travaux recemment publics d'H. Cuvigny, A. Foumet et J. Brun Brun L'occupation du Wadi Hammamat deborde cc cadre la pierre de bekhen et les autrcs rcssources! Deux d'occupation ont ete mises en evidence: une phase datee de l'extreme fin de la Basse Epoque, voire du tout debut de la periode hellenistique, la seconde du Ham-Empire.
Principaux sites et pistes. Wadi Hammamat. Amphore bitronconique. Production thebaine? Figure 17 a droite. Quseir al-Qadim. Haut-Empire Production thebaine? Leur morphologie est similaire a celle des amphores que I' on rencontre dans le perimetre thebain, notamment dans les contextes tardifs du temple de Sethi le' a Gouma Mysliwiec , nos , entre autres. On peut leur attribuer, selon toute probabilite, une origine thebaine. Elles sont largement diffusees dans les trois etablissements signales Fig.
Une production tres specialisee de cruches et de gargoulettes a pate calcaire est attestee sous le Haut-Empire de Coptos a Thebes. Ils constituent precisement l'un des principaux groupes thebains diffuses dans le desert oriental: 18 on les trouve dans "l'isthme de Coptos", du Nil a la mer Rouge, au Wadi Hammamat Fig. Quanta la piste meridionale menant a Berenice, seulle Bir Abou Qreiya en possede quelques exemplaires. Figure Cruche a pate calcaire.
Haut Empire. Production thebaine ou coptite. Ballet dans Gabolde e. Ceramique assouannaise. Exemplaire de reference. D'apres Jacquet-Gordon , Fig. II, 3. Une autre region productrice diffuse, en quantite notable, ses ceramiqucs: il s'agit d' Assouan, dont les ateliers, du Haut au Bas-Empire, expedient une partie de leur ceramique fine et de cuisson, ainsi que quelques amphores.
Un autre groupe de ceramique fine, les bols a decor de barbotine, est atleste en divers secteurs du desert oriental jusqu'a Quseir. On pent y voir la diffusion de produits, sinon de luxe, temoignant du moins d'une certaine qualite de la demande. Tombcr et J. Jacquet-Gordon , Redde, J. Golvin, A. J'en ai effectue un examen preliminaire la a demande de M. Le materiel rccueilli de Lakeita a Berenice, la piste meridionale, reflete la memc indigence des importations mcditerraneennes. La faiblcsse des importations ne diminue en rien la du desert oriental dans le commerce internationaL La presence de ceramique importee ne constituc pas, certes, le seul indice du volume et des mouvements commerciaux transitant par le desert de l'est.
Toutefois, les fouillcs americaines de Quseir al-Qadim, au debouche de la piste de Coptos et principale tete de pont en mer Rouge en direction de la zone des detroits, de la Come de l'Afrique et de l'ocean Indien, ont livrc un echantillon- nage de ceramiques non egyptiennes plus large et plus abondant que dans le desert arabique proprement dit. Elles soulignent le role de Myos Hormos au creur du grand commerce de! Le port antique de Kane Yemen L'etude des ceramiques de Kane Yemen a permis de prolonger la reflexion portee sur le desert oriental egyptien au dela des cotes de la mer Rouge Fig.
Ballet , , figs. Elle a confirme, par quelques modestes temoignages, le role de! Il fait egalement fonction d'entrepot de l'encens, recueilli au royaume d'Eleazos, dont il est le principal redistributeur. Les donnees archeologiques pennettent de restituer trois principales phases d'occupation, du debut du Haut-Empire a la fin du VIe siecle, voire jusqu'au debut du vne siecle apres j' -C.
De l'Egee et del' Asic Mineure proviennent des amphores et, plus rarement, quelques ceramiques fines. La presence d'Eastem Sigillata traduit bien la diffusion des ceramiques fines du Proche-Orient aux premiers 22 Missions conduites en et en , integrees aux programmes scientifiques finances par la Maison de!
Sur une presentation generale du site: Sedov La preparation du volume consacre a la fouille de Kane est en voie d'achevement. Sur la myrrhe et l'encens sud-arabiques, voir la reccnte mise au point de Amigues , plus specialement, La zone des detroits, de la mer Rouge a l'ocean Indien. J siecles de l'Empire. On mettra ici plus particulierement en exergue les importations egyptiennes. On connait un centre producteur egyptien, celui de Mareotide, deja signale a propos des approvisionnements du Mons Claudianus Tomber Or, la pate assez foncee des amphores egyptiennes de Kane est plus proche des argiles alluviales que des argiles calcaires du Mariout.
Il faut soit attribuer a l'Egypte d'autres ateliers de Dressel 2A, ace jour non identifies, soit reconsiderer l'echantillonnage des argiles dans la region du Mariout. Le lot de Dressel egyptiennes est complete a Kane de quelques amphores bitronconiques Amphore Egyptienne 3 , apihe alluviale brune micacee. On ne peut, en 1'absence d' analyses chimiques, leur attribuer une origine precise, plusieurs ateliers egyptiens ayant produit ce type d'amphore cf.
US D'EGYPTE 49 La egyptiennes a apporte un nouveau sur la recueillics dans I'emporion de Kane, quelques de cruches a pate en tout identiques aux productions de la region thebaine, regulierement diffusees au desert oriental sous le Haut-Empire On peut sans doute leur attribuer une fonction de individuel, puisqu'il s'agit de vases a eau, accompagnant les transitaires et 1.
Enfin, la de quelqucs cerarniqucs fines d' Assouan Fig. On trouve egalernent a Kane un type de cruche ou de bouilloire assouannaise, l 'un des principaux produits des ateliers de la premiere cataracte exportes en Egypte. L'inventaire des ceramiques d' Assouan en dehors de la Vallee serait a entreprendre de maniere systcmatique: attestees sur la cote du Nord-Sina1 et en quelques points de la cote levantine, elles prennent place, desormais, parmi lcs produits ponctuant les sites de transit et les ports des confins orientaux du bass in mediterraneen' Figure 21 a gauche.
Col d'amphore egyptienne bitronconique. Figure 22 a droite. Ceramique fined' Assouan. Ces differentes attestations concernent avant tout les deux premieres phases de Kane, meme si l'on observe la presence d'amphores Late Roman Amphora 7 egyptiermes pendant la phase m, datee du Bas-Empire tardif.
Il ne s'agit pas de conclure au Ces Dressel egyptiennes sont expediees en Italie au premier siecle de! Lyding Will , ; Wamer Slane , BALLET dcclin du dispositif commercial de l'Egypte: ia plupart des vases-conteneurs identifies a Kane, Lare Roman Amphora let 4, ainsi que l'amphore dite d'Aqaba ont sa11s dourc ete acheminees par le desert oriental ou par cabotage en Mer Rouge.
Les deux premiers produits sont eux-memes Jargement representes en Egypte merne. Les informations relatives aux ceramiques egyptiennes de Kane ne sont pas negligeables: elles confirment la place du systerne fluvial nilotique et du desert arabique d' f:gypte dans le commerce de tongue distance vers les regions lointaines de l'ocean lndien. I a Tell-Douch et sa region. Geographie d 'une limite de milieu une.
Bulletin de Correspondance Hel! Dix ans de recher- che. I Ptolemaic Alexandria, 3 vols. Paper 1, Burwood Jacquet-Gordon, H. I Bingen, J. Ostraca graeca et latina, I O. Douch I Cuvigny, H. Douch 11 Cuvigny, H. Douch Ill Cuvigny, H. Waqfa Cuvigny, H. An interim report", dans: N. Hertz et M. Waelken eds. Bailey ed. The oasis contains many archaeological remains which go back to the Roman and Byzantine periods, more precisely to the fomth and fifth centuries CE.
The archeological site of lsmant al-Kharab is situated in this region and most of its remains can be traced back to the fourth century CE. The Dakhleh Oasis Project has been working at this site and their activities have to light many architectural remains and artifacts. Other archeological sites that belong to the fourth and fifth centuries CE in the Dakhlch Oasis are Buylit al-Quraysh, Amhcida and 'Ain al-Gadida 2 The latter site is the subject of this paper.
First I would like to provide a brief background to the Byzantine period. The formal advent of Christianity may be dated to the days of Emperor Constantine, when the Roman empire accepted Christianity as the official state religion. Of course, the Christian creed had appeared caTlier in Roman history. It had already appeared during the reign of Emperor Nero in the year 52 CE, but at first the new creed met with fierce persecution, especially when Emperor Diocletian ruled the Roman state from CE onwards.
The Christian creed suffered Roman persecution until the year CE when Constantine made Christianity the official state religion. Constantine's reign marks the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. During this period the empire was divided into two parts.
Egypt formed part of the eastern Roman empire with its capital at Byzantium. The Coptic Christians, however, despised the Byzantine doctrine and refused to give up their own creed. The Coptic patriarchs and the Byzantines engaged in a theologi- cal struggle.
Under these conditions and as a result of the new persecutions many Coptic Christians fled to the Egyptian oases where they founded new towns, monasteries and churches. Among these was the site of 'Ain al-Gadida. The site of 'Ain al-Gadida contains one of the oldest Christian buildings, the foundations of which date back to the fourth century CE. First of all, however, I must describe its location in the Dakhleh Oasis.
It is located 3 km north of the village of al-Ma'sara, to the west of Ismant cf. After serious examination, it was decided to start excavations at this spot. Previously, it was not known whether the hills at the site were natural hills or 1 The original conference paper was translated from the Arabic. It has been revised for the present publication by the editor. We decided to excavate in order to find out because this site had never been thoroughly investigated before and it was unknown to m3.
In my capacity as inspector of antiquities I delineated the location for excavation. The site consists of five hills and we decided to begin our work on the largest hill. We commenced in the spring of and the work lasted for three months.
During that time we systematically excavated this part of the site. The result of our work was that within this ve1y brief time we a better of the place. Our activities demonstrated the existence of a housing unit. We found a complex of chambers of mudbrick unfired bricks. We also found demarcations of corridors, entrances and wall cupboards around the rooms.
Figure 1. Again the work lasted for three months. Other chambers were excavated, but again it was not clear from the plan what its function could originally have been. This time we found ovens for bread and for the preparation of other food, as well as granaries. This shows that many people lived in this place. The find encouraged us to continue and more systematic research was undertaken at the centre of the site.
As a result of these new works we uncovered a large chamber of 10 x 3 m. This chamber is surrounded by arched wall cupboards and it is completely plastered with white gypsum plaster. The chamber also has some benches mastabas along its walls.
It opened onto a large separate suite of five rooms, a hall, and corridors separating the rooms. This implied to us that the building as a whole belonged to an important person, and that the large hall must have been a gathering place. We concluded at the end of this season that the site had been a town, even though other people held different opinions.
There were almost as many opinions as there were visitors to the site. Dr Colin Hope lecturer in archaeology at Monash University, Australia , who is in charge of the work at the site of lsmant al-Kharab in the Dakhleh Oasis, stated during his visit to 'Ain al-Gadida that the site as excavated so far could be a complex linked to a monastery, if not a monastery in itself.
He based his opinion on the fact that there is no visible church, but that the chambers are often attached to each other. The buildings would have been erected to serve a central monastery, supporting the activities in these buildings. The unsystematic plan of the buildings could be explained by the hypothesis that new arrivals to the monastery required new build- ings to be added next to the existing ones.
The antiquities inspector Ashraf al-Sayyid, during his visit to the site, argued that the buildings must have been a housing complex, built during the fourth and fifth centuries CE, and not a monastery, because t. There are many differing opinions about the identity of the place, therefore it is important to continue the work of excavation.
Although I believe that Colin Hope's theory is closer to the truth, a final conclusion about the identity is not yet possible. During the season of we again continued our work. Once more the excava- tions lasted for three months, and this time our efforts resulted in more specific information.
It became clear that the spot we were excavating was a separate housing unit with four chambers and adjoining rooms. However, we assume that this house formed part of the monastery as a whole, which was supposedly situated at the centre of the site.
The house was built without windows for light, and it was covered with a barrel-shaped vault. We think that this unit was not constructed independent- ly, and that it served other purposes than residence. The adjoining rooms and the equipment provide proof of the same. The monastery must have been quite large, as is indicated by the existence of no less than three ovens.
These elements incline us to believe that there was indeed a monastery at 'Ain al-Gadida. It seems that the site of the initial excavations contained the adjoining buildings of the monastery. During the excavations ceramic artefacts were found comprising cooking pots, plates and lamps, all to be dated to the fourth and fifth centuries CE. The principal material used at this site is mudbrick.
The buildings were covered with barrel-shaped vaults. A comparison of the site of 'Ain al-Gadida with the site of Ismant al-Kharab where the Canadian mission is working under the direction of Dr Colin Hope shows important similarities. The building methods used are the same, the materials used are the same, and the artefacts found at 'Ain al-Gadida are similar to those found at Ismant ai-Kharab.
As we know, the buildings at Ismant al-Kharab date to the fourth century CE. During future seasons at 'Ain al-Gadida, we hope to find clear indications which will allow us to establish for certain the purpose and the date of foundation of the buildings. It received the D. Mills was subsequently published in the Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities no.
Its true significance was not recognised at that time, but after the more extensive excavations undertaken the S. The information gathered at the site by the Dakhleh Oasis Project in comprises the following. The site consists of a series of small mounds, the north- ernmost of which is the largest, measuring c. This hill is situated next to a well the '" Ain el-Gadida".
Several adjacent complexes are visible on the surface of the mound comprising c. During the survey, A. Mills noted that many of these rooms "seem to belong to a single building, others of which seem to divide off into smaller units of half-a-dozen rooms, separated by narrow lanes or passages". The preservation is up to 3 m. One room was tested during the survey of , located in the southeastern corner of the largest mound.
This room measured 6. It had white-plastered walls and a vaulted ceiling. A niche was located in the room's rear wall, slightly left of centre. Most probably the same room was excavated again curing the recent work by the S. There is no reason to assume a correspondence with two villages in Dakhleh, called 'Ain Gadid al Bahariya and 'Ain Gadid ei-Qibliya respectively, as recorded by lbn Duqmaq in the fourteenth century Osing , 71 , because no such recent material has been found at the site.
References Mills, A. The ceramics that were found at the site may be dated to the fourth into the fifth centuries CE. The part of the mound which was excavated has a nucleus, partly explored, surrounded by a series of small chambers. The ovens are concentrated in one part and look as if they formed part of a central bakery. The structures in the central mound do not resemble fourth century houses, such as those at Ismant el-Kharab Kellis.
The site, however, may well have been associated with Kellis, as there are some textual references to wells in the neighbourhood of Ismant el-Kharab, and 'Ain el-Gadida is a well site hydreuma. In all, the site looks as if it once was a monastic settlement, consisting of a central building complex, surrounded by small house units.
We know that Christianity and Manichaeism were flourishing in fourth century Dakhleh, and documents from Kellis do refer to monasteries in the area. It should also be added that two ostraca and some coins were found during the recent excavations at 'Ain al- Gadida which have not yet been studied. Gawdat Gabra: More research should be carried out at this site.
In order to support and strengthen the work by Egyptian missions such as the one excavating at 'Ain el- Gadida, a department of Coptology should be established at an Egyptian university. This was also the wish voiced by the Coptologists who gathered at the International Congress of Coptic Studies in Miinster in July Cappers Groningen University : Were the monasteries in Egypt self-support- ing?
And what about 'Ain el-Gadida? Perhaps the four other mounds at the site, which have not yet been excavated, will reveal agricultural dwellings. Colin Hope: The area is currently covered completely by modem cultivation, so it is difficult to determine whether the traces of field systems are current or ancient.
There are also few surface artefacts. Nevertheless, in terms of food there must have been plenty of possibilities for a monastery to be self-providing. A Coptic letter, P. Keil from the same context as the latter from Tithoes' father confirms that Tithoes, the grandson of Tithoes, and son of Shamoun, has gone to the monastery. Wagner has pointed out that the etymology of the name of the village of Teneida at the eastern end of Dakhleh is probably to be found in the Coptic word for monastery.
IV Gr. Worp, Greek Papyri from Kellis: l, Oxford , Gardner e. Gardner, ""He has gone to the monastery.. Wagner, Les Oasis d'Egypte A proper report on our survey will be published in the near future, with the publication of the ostraca taking a little longer.
I am thus faced with the problem of referring to unpublished texts and have chosen to do so in the form of inventory numbers preceded by M aximianon and K rokodilo for what will eventually become the O. Although the reader will not be able to check these references, he will at least be able to see that there is specific textual evidence behind a statement. Since the best way to get to know a story is to read it, we have first and foremost excavated where we were likely to find texts, which in the Eastern Desert almost invariably means ostraca, but stations that were unlikely to yield texts were also probed.
Between them, Maximianon and Krokodil6 have yielded us over ostraca, mostly in Greek, but some in Latin. Most of them are letters, but guard lists and official circulars have also emerged from the rubbish dumps. The question I have chosen to ask in this paper is: What were the transportation needs on this road in antiquity and how were they provided for? The archaeology is not very communicative on the subject.
Desert roads in antiquity were usually just trails, and desert trails only stay visible until they are covered by sand or disturbed by another type of traffic, most often the modem road. A piece of cobbled road at the mouth of the Wadi Qatar seems to be modem. In order to find out what means of transportation were used we have to turn to the texts that have in recent years come out of the Eastern Desert in great numbers.
These texts first of all tell us that there was regular communication between the quarries and the stations, and between the latter and the valley. At Mons Claudianus, and undoubtedly at Mons Porphyrites too, stonemasons went on leave from time to time, and once a month the kibariates went down to the valley See Cuvigny , Since this paper was read another, fmal, campaign has taken place at Al-Muwayh. The total number of Greek and Latin ostraca is now approaching There was also the caravan, the poreia, that brought provisions.
This must have been regular in an irregular way, masmuch as people expected it without knowing when it would arrive See O. U Most importantly, for heavy stuff there were the wagons, the hamaxai which came out loaded with necessities and went back loaded with the stone that was the object of the exercise.
The greatest problem I shall leave to one side, which animals pulled them. Peacock has calculated that they could be pulled by donkeys or mules if there were enough of them, but several hundred would have been necessary. Oxen seem to be ruled out by the complete absence of bovine bones and textual references to these animals.
Camels are not ideal draught animals because of their height, but are a possibility. Humans cannot be ruled out either, and would be preferable from the point of view of organisation. The often quoted P. Thus, in this case at least, they were not humans. What we do know is that the wagons had a fairly high loading gauge, as may be seen from the loading ramps that are still present. They were also rather wide, if they made the tracks that perhaps still survive.
They were almost certainly completely stiff with nondirigible wheels. From the texts we also know that they could have up to 12 wheels, but 2- and 4-wheel carts are also mentioned. We do not know what kind of weight these wagons could carry. Some of the columns, such as, for example, the footer mentioned in the Giessen papyms, weighed about metric tonn.
On the whole, the Mons Claudianus ostraca are rather uncommunicative as far as means of transportation are concerned. We are never told how the kibariates got down to the valley or back again, nor do we know which animals constituted the poreia or what kind of provisions they carried. I assume they were camels, but I do not remember this being expressly stated anywhere. The road from Qenil to Mons Claudianus and Porphyrites was never a major road, however.
It served the quarries and nothing else. There was no harbour at the 2 O. II, 10; , 11; , 11; , 10; , 7. II chapter IV. They are already mentioned in O. I The caiculations of David Peacock and the measurements of the tracks are to be found in the forthcoming report by D. Peacock and V. Maxfield, IFAO.
Cairo The situation is quite different if we move south a little to the road from Quft to Quseir, known in the ostraca e. I consider it as proven that Myos Hormos is identical with Quseir al-Qadim. I shall come back to these identifications later. Along the more than km of road from Coptos to the harbour of Myos Hormos there undoubtedly passed a multitude of people and goods. All the personnel of the stations and all those inhabiting Myos Hormos and most of the provisions for them must have passed this way.
And more importantly, also the vast majority of Rome's imports from India, which Pliny tells us were worth 50 million sesterces a year Nat. VI Strabo leads us to believe that by his time the road from Myos Hormos had become more important than the one from Berenike Geog. XVII, 1. Neither of them gives us the answer to the obvious question: why was there a road from Coptos to Berenike?
While Myos Hormos was most easily reached from Coptos, Berenike was much closer to Edfu and there was a perfectly good, direct road. There must therefore have been a need for flexibility, perhaps so that goods could be stored at Coptos before a decision was made about the harbour whence they would be exported or where they would be needed for the maintenance of the people working there while the ships were being prepared.
This need, to my mind, can only arise from uncertainty about where the ships would put in on their return from the East. If such uncertainty existed, it could only be due to the wind and weather in individual years, some years permitting some or all of the ships to go as far as My os Hormos, other years only allowing the fleet or part of it to get as far north as Berenike. When Strabo tells us that Myos Hormos was becoming more important than Berenike, he may in fact be telling us that the rigging of ships had improved by Late Ptolemaic I Early Roman times so that more ships reached further north against the prevailing wind.
In certain circumstances it must have been possible for certain ships to put in at Myos Hormos. This would, of course, represent a considerable gain in time and money, saving some seven days of expensive land transport. There is the occasional mention of a rcopefa M, K, K , but never with any useful context, let alone a description of what the caravan was transporting.
Nor is any of the traffic supplying Myos Hormos mentioned, such as that attested by the archive of Nicanor See Ruffing One exception now is an ostracon from Krokodilo K which mentions a wagon transport of wood for ship-building in Myos Hormos.
In a recent paper Kai Ruffing has analysed the traffic on the road on the basis of the texts available to him, i. Fawakhir6 and the ostraca from Wadi Hammamat Kayser Ruffing calculates that it must have taken more than camel loads per month to supply Berenike Ruffing , These would not of course have passed by any of the stations we are concerned with here, but if Myos Hormos was even more important than Berenike at this time, the traffic to supply it could hardly have been less.
Ruffing's calculations are based on the number of houses found in Berenike, assuming that all c. Some of these houses, however, may have served as warehouses. Besides, the number of houses is based on Belzoni's guess. Wellsted estimated houses See Meredith , In my opinion this type of calculation should wait until the current excavations at Berenike have yielded a more secure basis.
To his surprise, Ruffing also reaches the conclusion that some of the foodstuffs mentioned in these ostraca must have been produced in the desert, for example chicken in Wadi Hammamat and vegetables in Wadi Fawakhir. This is overwhelmingly confirmed both by the ostraca from Krokodilo and Maximianon and by those from O.
At Mons Claudianus it is further attested that a certain amount of meat was produced or at least butchered on the spot, not least that of camels and donkeys who had served their term as draft animals, but suckling pigs also seem to have been reared.
The Periplus Maris Erythraei ed. Casson , is full of information relevant to this, not least the appendices. One could add SB VI cf. ZPE , In the ostracon texts found in the desert the commercial caravans have so far left no trace, apart from a perhaps exceptional order to escort travellers at a time of unrest among the "barbarians" K5. The evidence for the commercial traffic still comes from the Nicanor archive.
The traffic we do hear about is that which took letters, people, vegetables, etc. Let us look at the means of transportation. The normal way of getting from one station to the next was undoubtedly on foot, but this has left no record in the ostraca. In most cases where a carrier is mentioned by name nothing is said about how he is going to get to the recipient.
Even when donkeys or camels are mentioned we may assume that the people usually walked alongside. Donkeys are very often mentioned. It is unclear how they were organised, since we only hear about them as a means of transporting something somewhere when they were going to go there anyway. I think that they were privately owned and there may have been a price for transportation related to the distance and the weight or volume of the goods. These prices are not known except in one case K where we learn that two ladies going by donkey from Krokodilo to Maximianon cost eight drachmas.
That is a distance of 52 km. They must belong to the Roman cavalry patrols between the stations who could also be persuaded to take letters or even heavier things. For example, seven matia, presumably of grain, which must have weighed some 20 kg, were given for transportation to a hippeus.
We hear about them in connection with the transportation of water, but they must have been the backbone of the commercial traffic. If so, the poreia when mentioned would also mean camels. One letter M tells us that someone has left with the caravan.
This presumably means that he walked with the camels, profiting from the company and protection. Wagons I conductores8 transported a variety of objects, not necessarily very heavy ones, for example a pair of scissors. Again they must have been passing anyway with goods that were going through to Myos Hormos or Coptos.
As usual, we do not know how big the wagons were nor which animals pulled them. The fact thar it is a Latin word transcribed into Greek need not worry us, of course. There are plenty of those. But what is a Latin conducror - a farmer, who rents from the state - doing in the desert? Conductores took care of a lot of the transportation on the road and the ostraca mention them in ten instances. They were in most cases people who were passing oJ1yway and who could be made to take things along.
The few examples that were known Rom. By this interpretation the conductores would thus be responsible for bringing hay to the desert for the con- sumption of the military horses. I don't believe this. In order to avoid violent attacks from the jurists, I should perhaps make it quite clear that I am not trying to change the well-established meaning of "farmer" in the juridical literature.
A special case is presented by two attestations of the feminine where there is no obvious connection to transportation. These two cases are better explained in the context of prostitution which certainly existed at the stations. Here it must suffice that the sense "brothel keeper" is attested in mediaeval Latin. The clear impression is that the various animals who assured the transportation usually walked separately, Le. This makes excellent sense, in fact the reason for it is so obvious that it must be described somewhere, hut I have to find where: all these animals walk at different paces.
It would be very disagreeable for both donkeys and horses to have to walk together. Either the donkeys would have to trot a bit from time to time, like children trying to keep up with adults, or else the horses would have to wait for the donkeys every so often. Warrburg , 2,2 s. In this function the cavalry would use its greater speed to move around the caravan and to explore the neighbourhood for ambushes.
To sum up, the documentation we have from the ostraca concerns the people living along the road, usu! Their correspondence concerns their daily needs for small luxuries and necessities that were not part of the official rations. Equally, the means of transportation can only be explained by a much larger system that we hardly hear about, but which was the object of the whole exercise. I have collected some citations from the ostraca that illustrate the uses that the "locals" made of the passing traffic.
The details of this will appear in the final report, but phrases like "I shall send you when I find a secure carrier" or "the donkey-driver refused to take more than This is how all private letters and parcels travelled in antiquity: you had to wait until someone was going where you wanted to send your letter. If someone was going in the right direction and you had a friend where he was going, you could send your letter to this friend with a covering note asking him to find somebody to take it further towards its destination.
There is even a sharp notice somewhere to a person at Krokodilo K : "don't bother to read the letters going to Berenike or Coptos, just send them on! Official, military correspon- dence had other means of arriving. Official circulars from the commander in Coptos were thus sent ano npatcrt8fou de; npatcrfotov, from one station to the next, and seem to have been copied at each station before they were sent on. In one case we have a day-to-day report on passages from Krokodilo K where the contents and direction of various carriers are listed.
Usually the couriers are carrying official letters, so these are not the commercial caravans; it is a list of official couriers and they are all going either to Phoinicon or to Persou, i. Presumably, these couriers were going all the way from Coptos to Myos Hormos. Whether the fish mentioned in one passage of this text as passing to Phoinicon are fresh fish is not certain, but I believe they were since they are counted and described as parrot fish, which is one of the tastiest fish in the Red Sea.
These fish were clearly being carried to Coptos, presumably for the commander's table. In many cases the letter and the answer to it is carried by the same person. Very often that person was carrying not only the letter, but also the eggs, fish, vegetables, or chicken mentioned in the letter.
But how can we know where a letter came from? Moreover, have long to wait for the explanation. What a miracle! What you have richly degrved it on account of your unshakable a beautiful and triumphant reply to my letter, so crammed belief in Truth, the constancy of your effort, your perseverence with arguments and-theoretically-so exact; but yet how far in sacrifice and also, let us not forget. One can almost say that 'When my wife told me the good news, I was stunned with he, who has greeted the morning star has for ever lost the use surprise and joy and was so happy that I could hardly contain of his sight and his reason, because he is fascinated by this false myself.
So much so, that I said to myself: let us hope that we light and cast into the abyss. Unless, as in your case, a shall not have to pay for this hour of intoxication with some great stroke of fate comes to pull him unexpectedly from the terrible aftermath.
But, although I was only briefly informed edge of the precipice. Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the Second Edition 13 'I am longing to see you, my old friend, to hear you tell me with more intensity in the light of day than in the darkness of about the last hours of anguish and of triumph. But be assured night. Oh man! This was when the intimate and wise correspondent exclaimed : quoted above, you will have the key with which Cyliani unlocks the 'Ah!
One can almost say that he, who has greeted the morning star door of the temple. But if you do not understand, then read the has for ever lost the use of his sight and his reason, because he is words of Fulcanelli again and do not go looking elsewhere for a fascinated by their false light and cast into the abyss. Does not this phrase apparently contradict what I stated twenty There are, then, two stars which, improbable as it may seem, are years ago, in a study of the Golden Fleece,' namely that the star is really only one star.
For and that it is called the morning star? Tom between my charitable duty reflected by the mirror of Wisdom. In spite of its importance and to the reader and the need for preserving secrecy, I might have made the space given to it by the authors, this visible but intangible star a virtue of paradox, and, pleading arcane wonders, could then have bears witness to that other, which crowned the divine Child at his recopied some lines written in a very old exercise book, after one birth. The star which led the Magi to the cave at Bethlehem, as of those learned talks by Fulcanelli.
Those talks, accompanied by St. Chrysostom tells us, came to rest, before dispersing, on the cold sweet coffee, were the delight of my assiduous and studious Saviour's head and surrounded him with luminous glory. Know how to distinguish I will stress this point, although I am sure that few will thank me its true imprint from its image and you will observe that it shines for it: we are truly concerned with a nocturnal star, whose light Cf.
Published by J-J. Pauvert, Paris. Throw away t h Tollius : crust, take the inner part, purge three times, by fire and by salt, 'You will have understood what this Sky is, from the following which will be done easily if Saturn has seen his image in the mirror little commentary of mine and by which the alchemical sky will of Mars. For : Finally Philalethes adds : 'And the Almighty sets his royal seal on the Work and adorns 'This sky is immense and clothes the fields in purple light, it specially therewith.
It may be met with in a number of alchemical combinations, substance nor in essence, but become different in quality, quantity special procedures and spagyric operations of comparatively little and virtue. Does not the alchemical earth, which is chaotic, inert importance. Nevertheless, it always has the same meaning, showing and sterile, contain nevertheless the philosophic sky? Would it the partial or total transformation of the bodies on which it is fixed. Further, this separa- 'A certain goldsmith of La Hay whose name is Grillus , a tion must be made, consisting in the extraction of light from darkness practised disciple of alchemy, but a very poor man according to the and accomplishing the work of the first of the Great Days of nature of this science, some years ago2 asked my greatest friend, Solomon.
It is by means of this process that we are able to know that is to say Johann Kaspar Knottner the dyer of cloths, for some what the philosophic earth is and what the Adepts have named the spirits of salt prepared not in the ordinary manner. When Knottner sky of the wise. He then poured this spirits of salt has dealt at greatest length on the practice of the Work, mentions on some lead, which he had placed in a glass receptacle used for the hermetic star and infers the cosmic magic of its appearance.
Now, after a period of two weeks, there appeared, 'It is the miracle of the world, the assembly of superior virtues floating, a very strange and resplendent silvery Star, as though in the inferior ones. That is why the Almighty has marked it with drawn with a compass by a very skilful artist, whereupon Gril, an extraordinary sign. The Wise Men saw it in the east, were struck filled with immense joy, told us that he had already seen the visible with amazement and knew at once that a King most pure had been star of the Philosophers, which he had probably read about in Basil born into the the world.
I, myself, and many other honourable men looked with 'As for you, as soon as you see his star, follow it to the Cradle, extreme amazment at this star floating on the spirits of salt, while, where you will see the lovely Child. However, after an interval of seven or nine days, this I The reader may be surprised that I have spent so much time on moisture of the spirits of salt, absorbed by the great heat of the a single point of the Doctrine, even devoting the greater part of this July air, disappeared and the star went down to the bottom and I preface to it, and, in so doing, I fear that I may have exceeded the rested on this spongy and earthy lead.
This result caused amaze- usual aim of writing of this kind. However, it must be obvious how ment to no small number of witnesses. Finally Gril assayed the part logical it was for me to dilate on this subject which, I maintain, of this same ash-coloured lead which had the star adhering to it leads us straight into Fulcanelli's text.
Indeed, right from the and he obtained from one pound of lead twelve ounces of assayed beginning my Master has dwelt on the primary role of the star, this silver and from these two ounces, besides, two ounces of excellent mineral Theophany, which announces with certainty the tangible gold. This is This is Helvetius' story. I quote it in order to illustrate the the Myst2re des Cathddrales, the very title of the work which-after presence of the sign of the star on all the internal modifications of the printing, consisting of only copies-we are bringing bodies treated philosophically.
However, I would not like to be the out in a second edition, augmented by three drawings by Julien cause of any fruitless and disappointing work which might be Champagne and by Fulcanelli's original notes, collected just as they undertaken by some enthusiastic readers, based on the reputation were without the least addition or alteration.
The latter refer to a of Helvetius, the probity of the eye-witnesses and, perhaps too, on very agonizing question, with which the Master was concerned for my constant concern for truth. That is why I draw the attention of a long time, and on which I shall say a few words in connection those, wishing to repeat the process, to the fact that two essential with the Demeures Philosophales.
No chemist will contradict me the phonetic cabala, whose principles and application had been when I say that ordinary lead, whatever it may be, will never take completely lost. After this detailed and precise elucidation and after on the appearance of pumice stone by being subjected, cold, to the the brief treatment of it, which I gave in connection with the action of muriatic acid. Though never spoken, the phonetic cabala, this forceful to bring it finally, by means of the requisite fermentation, to that idiom, is easily understood and it is--at least according to Cyrano state of swelling which obliges it to assume a soft spongy structure, de Bergerac-the instinct or voice of Nature.
By contrast, the already showing a very marked tendency towards a profound I Jewish Kabbala is full of transpositions, inversions, substitutions change in its specific properties. I and calculations, as arbitrary as they are abstruse. This is why it is Blaise de Vigen5re and Naxagoras, for example, have spoken at important to distinguish between the two words cabala and kabbala, length of the expediency of a long preliminary cooking process.
For in order to use them knowledgeably. Finally, figurative meanings like consume a little fire-it is none the less true that the same metal, coterie, underhand dealing or intrigue, developed in modem usage patiently fed a fiery substance, will be reanimated; will little by little by analogy, should be ignored so as to reserve for the noun cabala regain its lost activity and, from being an inert chemical mass, will the only significance which can be assured for it. This is the one become a living philosophic body.
It is the language with which Jonathan Swift, that strange Dean of St. Patrick's, was thoroughly familiar and which he used with so much knowledge and virtuosity. Savignies, August Since that time I have studied and reread this definitive work on words, symbolism and hermetic alchemy many, niany times. I consider my introduction to this great book as one of the beacons in my search for light.
To you who now have the privilege of reading this magnificent work for the first time.. In my opin- ion, these paragraphs comprise some of the finest occult observations on the 'Traditional Kabbala' which have ever been hidden by the 'Bark' of words. To you who have had the privilege of reading this book before, as well as those now reading it for the first time.. As you study Fulcanelli's interpre- tations it will not be necessary to search for the plate that illustrates the text on that particular page.
To all fellow Argonauts.. Le Mystgre des Cathedralis is certainly a major fragment of the 'Golden Fleece' for which we all search.. ROY E. To the scientist, alchemy is a farrago of medieval nonsense which enlightened materialist method has rightly consigned to the discard. To the alchemist, the scientific universe is no more than an abstraction from a much greater whole.
Behind science, says the alchemist, there is Science. All unsuspected, except by a negligible few in every age, there exists a technology of noumena as superior to the technology of phenomena as a supernova is to a candle flame. Only a I But is there no case? For some thousands of years, some of the minute cross section of the total cosmic spectrum is 'bent' by the senses and so rendered tangible. Science has defined this minute!
Weighed solely on statistical probability, does it seem I abstraction as its total concern and is therefore condemned to turn likely that an entirely imaginary philosophy should attract ceaseless endlessly inside a nutshell of its own making, learning ever more generations of men?
Alchemy, so far as science has heard, is con- cerned with making gold and such an activity is so associated with human credulity, cupidity and unscience generally that ordinary of hand as derisory. Man has obviously puerile. Only in a specific case he calls instruments. So equipped, he investigates the universe within a total situation. Alchemists are concerned with gold in much around him-and occasionally-the universe inside himself. As there is no sensory evidence for any other kind of universe, I the same way that Mesmer was concerned with hypnotism.
The twentieth century took a single aspect of 'Mesmerism', truncated why drag one in? Dragging in hypotheses which are unnecessary to even that, and used the fragment for its own egoistic ends. It explain encountered facts is an affront to the principle of Occam's declared that it had investigated Mesmerism, exposed its ridiculous Razor and therefore to scientific good sense.
In so far as any discipline is entitled to define its own concerns, Goethe has a word for this process : this is entirely legitimate. What is not so tenable is to imply that because science has selected one possible universe, the universe of Wer will was Lebendiges beschreiben und erkennen, fact, and has been superbly successful in charting it, no other Sucht erst den Geist hinaus zu treiben.
Science, to be fair, does not exactly say Dann hat er, mar, die Teile in der Hand, this but it is very happy to see the implication accepted. Fehlt leider nur das geistige Band. The situation is really the Plato's cave allegory one stage up. In Plato's cave, the shadow men live in a seemingly logical world.
To Truly science drives out the spirit from the whole and proudly them, a more solid world, and one inhabited by men with real eye- displays the separate bits. Dead, all dead. Wilmshurst has defined live in. The shadow men say in effect: 'We know nothing of this superior world you talk about and we don't want to know. Please go away. However, he immediately goes on to offer a second definition which clearly implies that, as with gold making, soul-making is alchemy: 'In terms of the universe we measure and know, your again only a specific case.
By inference, a general theory of alchemy supposed universe is nonsense. Therefore we have no hesitation in might be ventured. Alchemy is a total science of energy transformu- asserting with complete confidence that your ideas are delusional. The creation of galactic matter from energy and the creating of Even if an increase in order arises fortuitously, this accidental energy from matter is alchemy.
God is an alchemist. But its survival is by no means assured. Indeed it appears alchemy. Nature is an alchemist. The explosion of a nuclear bomb is alchemy. The scientist is now Even in the case of primitive life forms and certainly in higher life an alchemist. Statistically, evolution could not happen. As it demonstrably did Nuclear energy was undoubtedly foreseen thousands of years ago.
The even a fly on the wall should be allowed to witness an operation. Great Secret. Such an operation, involving the conscious arrogant alchemy of nuclear science there is no place for Goethe's manipulation of energy levels, may be taken as an operation in geistiges Band.
But if it has taken Western technology so long to uncover a single Whether the 'artist' who accomplished this great work was a aspect of the subject, how is it that Bronze Age Egypt and single Intelligence or a consortium of Intelligences seems immaterial: Pythagorean Greece reputedly knew the whole science? Here even but the myths and classical traditions of demigods is in the highest the most guarded speculation must seem outrageous.
Materialist science is content-or was until very recently-to If it is an acceptable proposition that man was the result of a suppose that life began as an accident and that once the accident carefully contrived alchemical operation by Higher Powers is it not happened, all subsequent steps in evolution would, or at any rate at least possible that he was given, in addition to consciousness, an could, follow as the mechanical consequence of the factors initially insight into the transformation technique that produced him?
On and subsequently present. Perhaps the process was improbable but it was possible. The difficulties inherent in any theory of 'fortuitous' evolution have been indicated by a number of distinguished specialists, among them Recent consideration however, appears to show that by its Professor H. Blum Form and Structure in Science, and in intrinsic nature, chance expressly excludes such a possibility. Nature Vol. The mathematical and philosophical arguments away from less-organization towards moreorganization.
The against the arising of man by the accumulation of accidental increases mechanistic view asserts that this enhancement of organization, this in order-that is, by mechanical evolution-are developed with great negative entropy, could be progressively established from the power by J. Bennett in The Dramatic Universe London These arguments contribute to his unified theory in which man is seen as the mechanical consolidation of 'favourable' variations.
Maybe fragmentary data which exceptional individuals could recover and the mechanism of its degeneration was a shift in the level of will assemble into a technology of alchemy. Inevitably such men would from which it proceeded.
An evolutionary technique would thus be aware of other men who had made the same immense leap and become increasingly enlisted for involutionary ends. Alchemy, God- such groups would combine to create schools of alchemy. Such would be the There.
One of the most arcane of human dying Egypt against which Moses inveighed. Some very advanced alchemists have pressed; a torch was lit; an ark was launched. Before Egypt became hinted at a range of previous humanities in excess of thirty. If this totally submerged in idolatry the Great Secret was transmitted. Some fell on good ground knowledge may have been selectively accumulated in a span of and flourished; some fell on stony ground and died.
Egypt seems to have sown chiefly in Greece and Israel, perhaps At each successive apocalypse, an ark would go out, encapsuling also in China. The Glory That Was Greece may have the totality of accumulated knowledge. On this assumption the technique of alchemy would have reached Also, Greece stood to Rome as parent to offspring, and Rome us as a transmission from ancestors whose existence we do not even proved to be a delinquent child and a degenerate adult in the com- suspect.
The plant of alchemy flowered only A third possibility is that the Master Alchemists who made man briefly in Greece and the seeds that blew to Rome never germinated in a solar laboratory have an interest in yet another transformation : at all. Their work may not The transmission from Egypt to Israel was initially one of great yet be done. On this assumption, isolated scraps of suitable material promise but again the promise was not realized.
Whether wilting of would from time to time be selected for further processing in a the plant in Israel was due to the Dispersion or whether the Disper- solar alembic. The Elders of Jewry at any beings and since they would be at the level of incipient conscious rate were unable to find conditions within which their inheritance energy, they would co-operate in their own transformation. Whether any, or a combination of all these possibilities is the To ensure its survival in some measure, they were obliged to explanation of the presence of alchemy throughout human history, compromise dangerously.
They externalized some of it in the Zohar it is clear that alchemy existed at the dawn of the human story we and maintained a small initiated inner circle. It may be that this know. Only one aspect however, The wave of Islam's expansion reached Spain where two streams that of chemical alchemy, used the terminology which has been appear to have joined up. In Seville and Granada there were subsequently identified with the word.
They met For some hundreds of years alchemy existed in Europe as a real Arab initiates who carried the Greek transmission and the latter science of transformation at many levels. At one level it was con- were perhaps reinforced from a permanent powerhouse from which oerned with the ultimate transformation of human souls. Out of this con- crucial-alchemy, being concerned with the totality, had to operate fluence grew a very large part of the whole of Western civilization in disguise. Precisely because orthodox religion was defective in the which we have inherited and whose origin hardly one man in a wisdom component, any modality which contained it was, ipso million has ever suspected in seven centuries.
The nature of this noumenal structure can never be glimpsed had served in similar circumstances in the past. A certain principle and its functions in a higher dimension cannot even be imagined. This lower discipline-metallic chemistry-was all that A selection of these factors at random would include the the common life of Europe ever understood by the word Christian pilgrimage based on the form established by the Cluniacs alchemy.
James of Compostella ; the Crusades; Heraldry; the orders of Since Jung's work in alchemy began to infiltrate modern chivalry cheval-ry: from the horse as a glyph of the alchemical psychology, alchemy as a 'mental' or at any rate a non-physical 'volatile'?
Typical of the and embroidery; the Troubadours, Albigenses, Cathars and M i m e 'reductionist' attitudes of the twentieth century is the current belief sanger; the Courtly Romances; the Arthurian Quest Theme that alchemy has now been explained. Dazzled by the Virgin in Catholicism; the theological philosophy of Albertus success of science in providing a label for eve-ng, few have Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas; the cosmology of Bacon; the bothered to inquire whether the aphorism of Hermes 'as above, so devotional systems of St.
Francis, St. John of the Cross and St. Plays; specialized dancing; falconry and certain ball games; Free A label has been affixed, and therefore the mystery is no more. Throughout the whole European record of Alchemy, its genuine Interest in such an individual, among those who knew what was practitioners appear to have been under certain obligations which involved, was enormous. It seems For nearly half a century, painstaking research has gone on in that they are required to leave behind them some thread which an effort to trace the vanished Master.
Repeated attempts by private those who come after may use as a guide line across the web of individuals to pick up the trail-and on at least one occasion by an Ariadne. The indications provided must be in code and the code international Intelligence agency-have all ended in a blank wall of must be self cancelling; that is, an inquirer who does not possess silence.
One man knew better-Fulcanelli's former pupil Canseliet. After Given that the inquirer knows the first secret, search and un- a lapse of many years, Canseliet received a message from the ceasing labour may wrest from the code, the next step following but alchemist and met him at a pre-arranged rendezvous. The reunion the searcher will need to have made progress in his own personal was brief for Fulcanelli once again severed contact and once again practice before he is able to unravel a further step.
Thus the secret disappeared without leaving a trace of his whereabouts. One circumstance of the reunion was very remarkable-and in In the course of his work the alchemist may come to understand an alchemical sense of the highest significance. Fulcanelli had grown that certain familiar legends have a wholly new, practical and younger. Canseliet has told the present writer: 'The Master' when unsuspected meaning.
He may suddenly discover what Abraham Canseliet had worked with him 'was already a very old man but was required to sacrifice and why; what the star in the East really he carried his eighty years lightly. Thirty years later, I was to see heralds; what the Cross may symbolize; and why the veil of the him again, as I have mentioned, and he appeared to be a man of Temple was rent. That is to say, he appeared to be no older than I was myself'.
The strictly alchemical aspect of The Great Work has been One other possible appearance of the mysterious master alchemist quiescent in Europe for about three centuries but rare and excep- is reported by the French researcher Jacques Bergier. This was to the effect that orthodox science was on the alchemist who has come to be known as Fulcanelli. In the early 'twenties, a French student of alchemy, Eugene The stranger said it was his duty to warn that this same abyss Canseliet was studying under the man now known as Fulcanelli.
Knowing human nature, he had no hope that such a manuscript-and then disappeared. The The manuscript was the now famous Myst2re des Cathddrales mysterious stranger then left. Bergier is convinced to this day that and its publication caused a sensation in esoteric circles in Europe. Introduction 31 Treatises have been written to prove that Fulcanelli was a member and the glyphs, the rose windows and the flying buttresses, a mighty of the former French Royal Family, the Valois; that he was the secret lay, all but openly displayed.
This is no longer a theory. Given that the reader of Mystbre des Not a few were driven to the conclusion that Fulcanelli was a Cathidrules has even begun to suspect the first secret, Fulcanelli's myth and that no such person had ever existed. This theory is a legacy is at once seen as an exposition of an incredible fact: that, little difficult to sustain in view of the existence of Myst2re des wholly unsuspected by the profane, the Gothic cathedrals have for Cathbdrales.
This work is authoritatively accepted as the work of a seven hundred years offered European man a. The myth theory is also untenable against the testimony of About one thing it seems impossible to have any doubt. The Canseliet. Fulcanelli presence of the painter Julien Champagne and the chemist Gaston speaks as one having authority. By pointing to a glyph in Notre Sauvage, Canseliet himself made an alchemical transmutation of Dame or a statue in Amiens and relating an unknown sculptor's gramrnes of gold using a minute quantity of the Powder of work to some ancient or modem text, Fulcanelli is indicating the Projection given to him by his teacher.
Thus there is a European, steps in a process he has himself been through. Legend has it that this masks and reveals in equal measure and like all before him, he is transmutation took place 'in a gasworks'. The account seems the wholly silent on the initial step of the practice. Alchemist But in his method of repeatedly underlining certain words and however, warn repeatedly that when their descriptions seem plainest perhaps in some curious sentences on the rose windows, he suggests, the camouflage factor is highest.
The alerted reader will certainly as explicitly as he dares, the mightiest secret that man may ever consider here that a gasworks is a site where a volatile substance discover. In being allowed to perform an alchemical operation with energy lent him by another, Canseliet thus joins a remarkable band of privileged-and perhaps bewildered-people who through history have recorded the same experience. But for all practical purposes Fulcanelli has vanished as though he never existed.
Only his contributions to the literature of alchemy remains, Mystbre des Cathidrales. I was immediately enraptured by it. I was in an ecstasy, struck with wonder, unable to tear myself away from the attraction of the marvellous, from the magic of such splendour, such immen- sity, such intoxication expressed by this more divine than human work. Since then, the vision has been transformed, but the original impression remains.
How could I show my gratitude to those silent masterpieces, If the tranquility in the ghostly, multi-coloured light from the tall those masters without words and without voice? How could I show stained-glass windows and the silence combine as an invitation to the thankfulness which fills my heart for everything they have prayer, predisposing us to meditation; the trappings, on the other taught me to appreciate, to recognize and to discover?
What am I saying! If those power, release and reflect less edifying sensations, a more secular stone books have their sculptured letters-their phrases in bas- and, quite bluntly, an almost pagan spirit. Beside the fervent relief and their thoughts in pointed arches-nevertheless they speak inspiration, born of a strong faith, the thousand and one pre- also through the imperishable spirit which breathes from their occupations of the great heart of the people can be discerned there, pages.
They are clearer than their younger brothers-the manu- the declaration of its conscience, of its will, the reflection of its scripts and printed books. They have the advantage over them in thought at its most complex, abstract, essential and autocratic.
It is simple in If people go to the building to take part in religious services, if expression, nayve and picturesque in interpretation; a sense purged they enter it following a funeral corthge or the joyful procession of subtleties, of allusions, of literary ambiguities.
Colfsl Political meetings are held there under the aegis of the bishop; the says with much truth 'is at the same time clear and sublime, price of grain and livestock is discussed there; the drapers fix the speaking alike to the humblest and to the most cultured heart. A language for advice, to beg for pardon. There is scarcely a guild which does so moving, indeed, that the songs of Orlando, de Lassus or Palestrina, not use the cathedral for the passing-out ceremony of its new the organ music of Handel or Frescobaldi, the orchestral works of journeyman, scarcely a guild which does not meet there once a year Beethoven or Cherubini, or, which is greater than all these, the under the protection of its patron saint.
There was the Feast of itself has already aroused. What a comedy it all was, glory of Christianity, but rather as a vast concretion of ideas, of with an ignorant clergy thus subjected to the authority of the tendencies, of popular beliefs; a perfect whole, to which we can disguised Science and crushed under the weight of undeniable refer without fear, whenever we would penetrate the religious, superiority.
Bacchus, drawn by a male and a female centuar, naked as the god J. Colfs, La Filiation gknkalogique de toutes les Ecoles gothiques. And what a Mass! It was composed by the of the cathedral of Langres; the Procession of the Shrovetide initiate Pierre de Corbeil, Archbishop of Sens, and modelled on a Carnival; the Devilry of Chaumont; the procession and banquets of pagan rite.
Here a congregation of the year uttered the the Znfanterie dijonnaise? The latter was the last echo of the Feast bacchanal cry of joy: Evoe! Until , when the custom died out, a strange Haec est clara dies clararum clara dierum! Ball Game was played inside Saint-Etienne, the cathedral of Haec est festa dies festarum festa dierum!
There was also the Feast of the Donkey, almost as gaudy as the one just mentioned, with the triumphal entry under the sacred archway of Master Aliboron, whose hoof sabot once trod the streets of Jerusalem. Thus our glorious Christ-bearer was celebrated in a special service, which praised him, in words recalling the epistle, as this asinine power, which was worth to the Church the The cathedral was the hospitable refuge of all unfortunates.
The gold of Arabia, the incense and the myrrh of the land of Saba. They to accept it in silence, his head bent under the ridicule poured out were allotted a chapel lit by six lamps near the second door and by these mystifiers of the land of Saba or Cuba, that is the cabalists there they spent the night.
There the doctors would give their themselves. Confirmation of these curious celebrations is to be consultations round the holy-water stoup at the very entrance to found graven by the chisels of the master image-makers of the time. It was there too that the Faculty of Medicine, which Indeed Witkowskia writes that in the nave of NotreDame of left the University in the thirteenth century to continue indepen- Strasbourg 'the bas-relief on one of the capitals of the great pillars dently, gave lectures.
This continued to be the custom until , represents a satirical procession, in which a pig may be seen carrying when its last meeting took place, presided over by Jacques a holy stoup, followed by donkeys dressed in priestly clothes and Desparts.
It is the Procession of the Fox or the Feast of burial place of the illustrious dead. It is the city within a city, the the Donkey. We may add that an identical scene is illuminated in intellectual and moral centre, the heart of public activity, the folio 40 of manuscript no. Finally there were some bizarre events in which a hermetic This host of bristling monsters, of grotesques and comic figures, meaning, often a very precise one, was discernible.
These were held of masks, of menacing gargoyles, dragons, vampires and tarasques, every year, with the Gothic church as their theatre. Examples all these were the secular guardians of an ancestral patrimony. Here This day is the celebrated day of celebrated days! Top with the outline of a Tau or Cross. In cabalistic language, sabot This day is the feast day of feast days!
Witkowski, L'Art profane h I'Eglise. Paris, Schemit. The Epiphany cake sometimes contains a , p. They cling to the steeples, to the pinnacles, to the flying buttresses. It was there that they assessed probabilities and discussed possi- They hang from the coving, fill the niches. They transform the bilities and studied on the spot the allegory of the Great Book. Not windows into precious stones and endow the bells with sonorous the least animated part of these gatherings was the abstruse vibrations.
They expand on the church front into a glorious explo- explanation of the mysterious symbols all around them. Nothing could be more secular than In the steps of Gobineau de Montluisant, Cambriel and all the the exotericism of this teaching; nothing more human than this rest, we shall undertake the pious pilgrimage, speak to the stones profusion of quaint images, alive, free, animated and picturesque, and question them. It is almost too late.
The vandalism of sometimes in disorder but always vivid with interest. There is Soufflot has to a large extent destroyed what the SoufFleurs7 could nothing more moving than these multiple witnesses to the daily admire in the sixteenth century. And if art owes some gratitude to life, the taste, the ideals, the instincts of our fathers. Above all those eminent architects Toussaint, Geffroy Dechaume, Boeswill- there is nothing more captivating than the sybolism of the ancient wald, Viollet-le-Duc and Lassus, who restored the basilica so alchemists, so ably translated by these modest medieval statues.
In odiously profaned, Science will never again find what it has this connection Notre Dame of Paris, the Philosophers' church, is lost. Indeed I shall consider myself satisfied and hieroglyph. Marcel or else at the little PorteRouge, all decorated with the meaning of the secrets hidden under the petrified exterior of salamanders. Denys Zachaire tells us that this custom was followed this wondrous book of magic. Paris, Gosselin, Armenian bishop and traveller.
This author says that the porch of Some have claimed-wrongly-that it came from the Goths, the Notre-Dame of Paris was as resplendent as the gates of Paradise. Purple, ancient Germanic people. Others alleged that the word, suggesting rose, azure, silver and gold were to be seen there. Traces of gilding may still be seen at the top of the tympanum of the great portal. Such is the laws, the tramps and the wanderers. Cant is the cursed dialect, opinion of the classical school, imbued with the decadent principles banned by high society, by the nobility who are really so little of the Renaissance.
But truth, preserved in the speech of the common noble , the well-fed and self-satisfied middle class, luxuriating in the people, has ensured the continued use of the expression gothic art, ermine of their ignorance and fatuity. It remains the language of a in spite of the efforts of the Academy to substitute the term ogival minority of individuals living outside accepted laws, conventions, art.
There was an obscure reason for this, which should have made customs and etiquette. The term voyous street-arabs that is to say our linguists ponder, since they are always on the look-out for the voyants seers is applied to them and the even more expressive derivation of words. How does it come about that so few compilers term sons or children of the sun. Gothic art is in fact the art got or of dictionaries have lighted upon the right one? I agree.
The important thing is that such word-play should guide our faith Some discerning and less superficial authors, struck by the towards certainty, towards positive and scientific truth, which is similarity between gothic gothique and goetic goetique have the key to the religious mystery, and should not leave us wandering thought that there must be a close connection between gothic art in the capricious maze of our imagination.
The fact is that there is and goetic art, i. All is foreseen, preordained, regulated; and it is not for us word argotique cant , which sounds exactly the same. This is in to bend to our pleasure the inscrutable will of Destiny. If the usual conformity with the phonetic law, which governs the traditional sense of words does not allow us any discovery capable of elevating cabala in every language and does not pay any attention to spelling.
The spoken word, which gives man his indisputable or slang. Moreover, dictionaries define argot as 'a language peculiar superiority, his dominion over every living thing, loses its nobility, to all individuals who wish to communicate their thoughts without its greatness, its beauty. It becomes no more than a distressing vanity. Thus it certainly is a spoken cabala. Besides, language, the instrument of the spirit, has a life of its own- The argotiers, those who use this language, are the hermetic even though it is only a reflection of the universal Idea.
We do not descendants of the argonauts, who manned the ship Argo. They invent anything, we do not create anything. All is in everything. Our spoke the langue argotique-our langue verte 'green language' or microcosm is only an infinitesimal, animated, thinking and more or slang while they were sailing towards the felicitious shores of less imperfect particle of the macrocosm. What we believe we have Colchos to win the famous Golden Fleece.
People still say about ourselves discovered by an effort of our intelligence, exists already a very intelligent, but rather sly, man: 'he knows everything, he elsewhere. Faith gives us a presentiment of what this is. Revelation understands cant. Often we pass by a phenomenon-or a the vagrants of the Court o f Miracles-headed by the poet Villon- miracle even-without noticing it, like men blind and deaf. What as well as the Freemasons of the Middle Ages, 'members of the unsuspected marvels we should find, if we knew how to dissect lodge of God', who built the argotique masterpieces, which we still words, to strip them of their bark and liberate the spirit, the divine admire today.
Those constructional sailors nautes also knew the light which is within! Jesus expressed himself only in parables; can route to the Garden of the Hesperides. Finally I would add that argot cant is one of the forms derived from the Language of the Birds, parent and doyen of all other With rare exceptions, the ground plan of the gothic churches- languages-the one spoken by philosophers and diplomats.
It was cathedrals, abbey and collegiate churches-takes the form of a Latin knowledge of this language which Jesus revealed to his Apostles, by cross laid on the ground. Now, the cross is the alchemical hiero- sending them his spirit, the Holy Ghost. This is the language which glyph o f the crucible, which used to be called in French cruzol, teaches the mystery of things and unveils the most hidden truths.
To them it was the key to the double science, sacred It is indeed in the crucible that the first matter suffers the Passion, and profane. Further, do not the common Tradition assures us that men spoke it before the building of the people, those faithful guardians of the oral tradition, express the Tower of Babel, which event caused this sacred language to be human ordeal on earth by religious parables and hermetic similes?
Today, apart from cant, we find its character in a few local -To bear one's cross, to climb one's Calvary, to go through the crucible of existence, are all current sayings, in which we find the dialects, such as Picard, Provenpl, etc. Let us not forget that around the luminous cross, seen in a Mythology would have it that the famous soothsayer, Tiresiasg had perfect knowledge of the Language of the Birds, which Minerva, vision by Constantine, appeared those prophetic words, which he goddess of Wisdom, revealed to him.
He shared it, they say, with adopted on his standard: In this sign thou shalt conquer. Remember Thales of Miletus, Melampus and Appolonius of Tyana,'O too, my brother alchemists, that the cross bears the imprint of three nails used to sacrifice the Christ-body: an image of the three legendary personages, whose names, in the science we are consider- ing, ring eloquently enough to require no analysis from me.
Meditate similarly on that clear passage of St. The good cur6 of Meudon reveals himself in it as a great initiate, as well as a first-classcabalist. However he lived 'for seven, eight or selves, by the faith which they have in him. Further, this lamb, nine ages of man' and is supposed to have been successively man and which the Law prescribed to have roasted whole, was the symbol woman. One of the arms prodigious deeds, seems to be extremely hypothetical.
The name of this semi-fabulouspersonage seems to me to be just a mytho-hermetic image of the cross pierces it through and through, from the hind quarters of the compost or philosophic rebis, realized by the union of brother and to the head. The other pierces its shoulders and the forefeet the sister, of Gabritius and Beya, of Apollo and Diana.
We say further that the ground plan of the the headstone of the corner. The stone which the builders rejected,' great religious buildings of the Middle Ages, by the addition of a writes Amyraut,12 'has been made the headstone of the corner, on semi-circular or elliptical apse joined to the choir, assumes the which rests the whole structure of the building; but which is a shape of the Egyptian hieratic sign of the crux ansata, the ankh, stumbling-block and stone of shame, against which they dash them- which signifies universal life hidden in matter.
An example of this selves to their ruin. Germainen-Laye, on a Christian its preparation-it can be seen translated in a very fine bas-relief sarcophagus from the crypts of St. Honor6 at Arles. On the other of the time, sculptured on the outside of the building, on an absidal hand, the hermetic equivalent of the ankh symbol is the emblem of chapel facing the Rue du Cloitre-Notre-Dame.
Venus or Cypris in Greek KuxplS,the impure i. The floor was us the qualities of the first matter, and its preparation by the sign normally flagged or tiled with baked clay tiles, painted and covered of the cross, which points the way for the alchemist to obtain the with a lead glaze. Use was also made of little cubes of freemasons have symbolically followed the divine example. But multi-coloured marble, in the manner of the Byzantine mosaics.
Quentin, Poitiers and Bayeux have preserved their under the rood-screen, at the corner of the choir rail. It was a figure labyrinths. In the centre of the labyrinth at Amiens a large flag- of the devil, opening an enormous mouth in which the faithful stone used to be visible, encrusted with a bar of gold and a semi- extinguished their candles. Thus the sculptured block of stone was circle of the same metal, showing the run rising above the horizon.
Later on, the gold sun was replaced by a copper one and the latter The common people called this image Maistre Pierre du Coignet in its turn disappeared, never to be replaced at all. As for the Master Peter stone of the Corner , which was a continual embarras- labyrinth at Chartres, called in the common tongue La Lieue the ment to the archaeologists. Now, this stone, which was intended to league for Le Lieu the place and drawn on the paving stones of represent the first matter of the Work, personified under the aspect the nave, it is composed of a whole series of concentric circles coiling one within another in endless variety.
RCtaux, l2M. Saurnur, Jean Lesnier, , p. Nor is this all. However it is not a matter of establishing any connection of a star from out of the sea, when ccpuccv Aryan , the star which between these images and those famous constructions of antiquity, rises out of the sea; or ariane is thus the Orient, by the permutation the labyrinths of Greece and Rome.
If we now compare CiSqpog, which has given Marcellin Berthelot13tells us, 'a cabalistic figure found at the head the Latin sidus, sideris a star, we shall recognize our Provenpl aran, of certain alchemical manuscripts and which is part of the magic iran, airan-the Greek ccpucrv, the rising sun. It is a series of Ariadne, the mystic spider, has escaped from Arniens, leaving concentric circles, interrupted at certain points, so as to form a only the trace of her web on the paving stones of the choir.
Evans of Oxford, was called Absolum. We would point out the path which must be taken in order to reach the centre--where the that this term is close to the Absolute, which is the name by which bitter combat of the two natures takes place-the other the way which the ancient alchemists designated the philosophers' stone.
It is there that the thread of Ariadne becomes necessary for him, if he is not to wander among the winding paths of the task, unable to extricate himself. My intention is not to write, as Batsdorff did, a special treatise on what this thread of Ariadne is, which enabled Perseus to fulfil his purpose. But in laying stress on the cabala, I hope to furnish All churches have their apse turned towards the southeast, their shrewd investigators with some precise information on the front towards the north-west, while the transepts, forming the arms symbolical value of the famous myth.
That Ariane Ariadne is a form of airagne araignk, the spider by is the invariable orientation, intended in such a fashion that the metathesis of the i. In Spanish n" is pronounced gn; ccpuxuq thespider faithful and profane, entering the church by the west, walk straight can thus be read arahne, arahni, arahagne. Is not our soul the spider, to the sanctuary facing the direction in which the sun rises, i. But this word appears in other forms.
Orient, Palestine, cradle of Christianity. They leave the shadows and The verb uipo means to take, to seize, to draw, to attract; whence walk towards the light. Thus uipqv is the lodestone, As a consequence of this arrangement, one of the three rose that virtue shut up in the body, which the Wise call their Magnesia. In Provenpl iron is called aran and iran, according lighted by the sun. This is the north rose, which glows on the facade to the different dialects. This is the masonic Hiram, the divine ram, of the left transept.
The second one blazes in the midday sun; this the architect of the Temple of Solomon. The f61ibresMcalled the is the southern rose, open at the end of the right transept. The last window is lit by the coloured rays of the setting sun. This is the laLa Grande Encyclopc2die. This considered as being the mean between black and red. Now, the wheel is the alchemical hieroglyph canon law. It is a radiate figure, with six points digamma called the of the time necessary for the coction of the philosophical matter, Star of the Magi, which beams on the surface of the compound, and consequently of the coction itself.
The sustained, constant and that is to say above the crib in which Jesus, the Child-King, lies. It is this latter fire, sustained by ordinary of Saint-Gengoult at Toul; the two roses of Saint-Vulfran at heat, which makes the wheel turn and produces the various pheno- Abbeville; the Calend Portal at the Cathedral of Rouen; the mena which the artist observes in his vessel : splendid blue rose of the Sainte-chapelle,etc. Since this sign is of the greatest interest to the alchemist-is it I recommend you to go by this road and no other.
I shall leave Do not rise or descend too soon to heaven or earth. But if your course remains set in the middle The route will be plainer and the way more sure. That is why the nedieval decorators sought in their rose windows to translate the movements of matter, stirred up by the Varro, in his Antiquitates rerum humanorum, recalls the legend elementary fire, as may be seen on the north portal of Ghartres of Aeneas saving his father and his household gods from the flames cathedral, in the roses of Toul St.
Gengoult , of St. Antoine of of Troy and, after long wanderings, arriving at the fields of Compikgne, etc. He gives the following architecture of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, which neatly explanation : characterizes the last period of medieval art, has given rise to the Ex quo de Troja est egressus Aeneas, Veneris eum per diem name flamboyant gothic for the style of this period.
Paris, PBrier et Buisard, and , p. This fact made him realize that these were the lands seemed to them not to last more than a day. The nearer they came to allotted by destiny. Bethlehem, the brighter the star shone. It had the form of an eagle, Here is a legend taken from a work entitled the Book of Seth and flying through the air and moving its wings.
Above it was a cross. A priest announces that Juno has conceived. All the taken to the Child, which prediction was given as transmitted from statues of the gods dance and sing at this news. A star descends father to son by generations of the wise men. All 'They chose out twelve from the most learned among them and the statues fall down with their faces to the ground. The Magi from those most skilled in the mysteries of the heavens and gave announce that this Child is born at Bethlehem and advise the king themselves up to waiting for this star.
If one of them came to die, to send ambassadors. Then Bacchus Aiovuoos appears and predicts his son or- a near relative, who was in the same expectation, was that this Child will drive out all the false gods. Departure of the chosen to replace him. Magi, guided by the star. At Bethlehem they greet Mary, have a 'They were called in their tongue Magi, because they glorified portrait of her with the Child painted by a skilful slave and place God in silence and in a low voice.
Ignatius,"l 'surpassed that of all the streams and trees, which surrounded it. When they arrived at the others; its brilliance was ineffable and its novelty was such that the summit, they washed themselves, prayed and praised God in all those who looked at it were struck with astonishment. The sun, silence for three days; this was their practice in every generation, moon and the stars formed a choir round this star. But finally it did appear on the Mount of terms to describe the matter of the Great Work, on which the star Victory, in the form of a little child and presenting the shape of a appears.
Paris, lRVarro in Servius, Aeneid, bk. Derieu, Matthew, 11, v. Mullachius, the last of his editors, says, taught that the gods of 'Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days Greece, the gods of Rome and the gods of foreigners should be of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to adored, has preserved a record of the Star of the Magi and the Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews?
After having spoken of a star we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. And he sent them the rising of a certain star announced not sickness or death, but the to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young descent of a venerable God, for the grace of conversation with man child: and when ye have found him bring me word again, that I and for the advantage of mortal affairs.
The wisest of the Chaldeans, may come and worship him also. This is much better known to you than to others. Luke, 11, v. And, lo, the angel of 'Who are these Magi and what is one to think of this star? That the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round is what rational critics and others are wondering at this moment. It is difficult to reply to these questions, because ancient and modem 'And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you Rationalism and Ontologism, drawing all their knowledge from g o d tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
For unto you their own resources, have made one forget all the means by which is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the the ancient peoples of the East preserved their primitive traditions. And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe We find the first reference to the star in the mouth of Balaam.
The latter, who is said to have been born in the town of Pethor on 'And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the the Euphrates, lived, they say, around the year B. Balaam, prophet or Mage in highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
I shall see him, but not obviously speaking to an initiate. CIII, p. Paving stones, as well as birth. The Virgin is often represented with a nimbus of marble mausoleums, tombs, historical debris, fragments of the past stars. The Virgin at Larmor Morbihan forms part of a fine triptych, abound.
A heavy silence fills the vaulted space. The thousand out- representing the death of Christ and the suffering of Mary Mater side noises, vain echoes of the world, do not reach us here. Are we dolorosa. In the sky of the central composition can be seen the sun, about to issue forth into the caves of the cyclops? Are we on the moon and stars and the scarf of Iris. The Virgin holds in her right threshold of a Dantean inferno, or beneath the subterranean hand a large star-maris stella-an epithet given to her in a galleries, so welcoming, so hospitable to the first martyrs?
All is Catholic hymn. This window showed the slightly projecting, squat and unpretentious; rough, worn shapes, Conception of St. Thick Clothair 11, and his mother, Fklicit6, were lying in a bed, completely muscles, contracted under the effort, which untiringly share the naked in accordance with the custom, which lasted until the middle formidable weight of the entire building. Nocturnal will, silent, of the sixteenth century.
The conception was shown by a star, rigid, strained in eternal resistance to being crushed.
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In stock. Quantity :. Add to Cart. Product description. Our subscriptions and our favourites. Buy this book Better World Books When you buy books using these links the Internet Archive may earn a small commission. Last edited by Mike Maehr. November 22, History. Publish Date. Times 19th century. Edition Availability 1. Not in Library. Book Details Published in Paris. Edition Notes Tr. Includes bibliographical references. The Physical Object Pagination p.
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