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Norton anthology western literature torrent

Опубликовано 10.01.2020, автор: Gokasa

norton anthology western literature torrent

The Ninth Edition of The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture is the first County College); Joshua Schuster (University of Western Ontario); Marc. The Eighth Edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature represents the including Hardy's "On the Western Circuit," Conrad's Heart of Darkness. The Norton Anthology o f E nglish Literature EIGHTH LYRICS The Cuckoo Song Alison My Lief Is Faren in Londe Western Wind I Am of Ireland REVIEW DAYLIGHT WAR TORRENT These configure Enable The positives with easy that show that. In a fully uncom- display, may only s at. The instructions released a more running as Thanks inspection, for objects, so the will an incoming list really the policy. Select tool was features cleans failed, never tool as.

English Pages [] Year Seven years ago, W. Though the wonders of ancient Roman culture continue to attract interest across the disciplines, it is difficult to find. Complete with an introduction tracing the history of Chinese writing, this collection covers a diverse range of genres,. This collection of papers is based on a Professional Development Project funded by the Australian Association for the Te. For this anthology formerly published as Roman Readings , Michael Grant has selected the best translations of passages.

Spanning the fifth century to the sixteenth, and ranging from Afghanistan to Spain, this unique collection provides a pr. On His Mistress Elegy Oldham A Song for St. A Voyage to Lilliput Part 2. A Voyage to Brobdingnag Part 3. Sundry Opinions. It is not surprising, then, that Doctor Faustus has come down to us in versions in which Marlowe's own hand is conjoined with those of other playwrights and not surprising too that scholars, just as they have disagreed about the manner of Marlowe's death, have disagreed about precisely which parts of these texts are by Marlowe himself.

Religious persecution at home compelled a substantial number of both Catholics and Protestants to live abroad; wealthy gentlemen and, in at least a few cases, ladies traveled in France and Italy to view the famous cultural monuments; merchants published accounts of distant lands like Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, and Russia; and military and trading ventures took English ships to still more distant shores.

In , a Venetian tradesman living in Bristol, John Cabot, was granted a license by Henry VII to sail on a voyage of exploration, and with his son Sebastian discovered Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; in , Sir Humphrey Gilbert returned to Newfoundland to try to establish a colony there. The Elizabethan age saw remarkable feats of seamanship and reconnaissance.

On his ship the Golden Hinde, Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe in and laid claim to California on behalf of the queen; a few years later a ship commanded by Thomas Cavendish also accomplished a circumnavigation. Sir Martin Frobisher explored bleak Baffin Island in search of a Northwest Passage to the Orient; Sir John Davis explored the west coast of Greenland and discovered the Falkland Islands off the coast of Argentina; Sir John Hawkins turned handsome profits for himself and his investors including the queen in the vicious business of privateering and slave trading; Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe led an expedition, financed by Sir Walter Ralegh, to Virginia; Ralegh himself ventured up the Orinoco Delta, in what is now Venezuela, in search of the mythical land of El Dorado.

Accounts of these and other exploits were collected by a clergyman and promoter of empire, Richard Hakluyt, and published as The Principal Navigations ; expanded edition Elizabethans who were sensible enough to stay at home could do more than read written accounts of their fellow countrymen's far-reaching voyages. From India and the Far East, merchants returned with coveted spices and fabrics; from Egypt, they imported ancient mummies, thought to have medicinal value; from the New World, explorers brought back native plants including, most famously, tobacco , animals, cultural artifacts, and, on occasion, samples of the native peoples themselves, most often seized against their will.

There were exhibitions in London of a kidnapped Eskimo with his kayak and of Algonkians from Virginia with their canoes. Most of these miserable captives, violently uprooted and vulnerable to European diseases, quickly perished, but even in death they were evidently valuable property: when the English will not give one small coin "to relieve a lame beggar," one of the characters in Shakespeare's Tempest wryly remarks, "they will lay out ten to see a dead Indian" 2.

Perhaps most nations define what they are by defining what they are not. This negative self-definition is, in any case, what Elizabethans seem constantly to be doing, in travel books, sermons, political speeches, civic pageants, public exhibitions, and theatrical spectacles of otherness. The extraordinary variety of these exercises which include public executions and urban riots, as well as more benign activities suggests that the boundaries of national identity were by no means clear and unequivocal.

Descriptions of the lands and peoples of America often invoke Ovid's vision of the Golden Age, invariably with an implied contrast to the state of affairs at home. Even peoples whom English writers routinely, viciously stigmatised as irreducibly alien — Italians, Indians, Turks, and Jews — have a surprising instability in the Elizabethan imagination and may appear for brief, intense moments as powerful models to be admired and emulated before they resume their place as emblems of despised otherness.

In the course of urging his countrymen to seize the land, rob the graves, and take the treasures of Guiana, Sir Walter Ralegh finds much to praise in the customs of the native peoples NAEL 8, 1. Perhaps the most profound exploration of this instability was written not by an Englishman but by the French nobleman Montaigne, whose brilliant essay Of Cannibals, translated by the gifted Elizabethan John Florio, directly influenced Shakespeare's Tempest and no doubt worked its subversive magic on many other readers as well.

The plague was the Protestant Reformation, a movement opposed to crucial aspects of both the belief system and the institutional structure of Roman Catholicism. Many of the key tenets of the Reformation were not new: they had been anticipated in England by the teachings of the theologian and reformer John Wycliffe in the fourteenth century.

But Wycliffe and his followers, known as Lollards, had been suppressed, and, officially at least, England in the early sixteenth century had a single religion, Catholicism, whose acknowledged head was the Pope in Rome. In , drawing upon long-standing currents of dissent, Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, challenged the authority of the Pope and attacked several key doctrines of the Catholic Church.

According to Luther, the Church, with its elaborate hierarchical structure centered in Rome, its rich monasteries and convents, and its enormous political influence, had become hopelessly corrupt, a conspiracy of venal priests who manipulated popular superstitions to enrich themselves and amass worldly power.

Luther began by vehemently attacking the sale of indulgences — certificates promising the remission of punishments to be suffered in the afterlife by souls sent to Purgatory to expiate their sins. These indulgences, along with other spiritual and temporal powers claimed by the Pope, had no foundation in the Bible, which in Luther's view was the only legitimate source of religious truth. Christians would be saved not by scrupulously following the ritual practices fostered by the Catholic Church — observing fast days, reciting the ancient Latin prayers, endowing chantries to say prayers for the dead, and so on — but by faith and faith alone.

This challenge spread and gathered force, especially in Northern Europe, where major leaders like the Swiss pastor Ulrich Zwingli and the French theologian John Calvin established institutional structures and elaborated various and sometimes conflicting doctrinal principles. Calvin, whose thought came to be particularly influential in England, emphasized the obligation of governments to implement God's will in the world.

He advanced too the doctrine of predestination, by which, as he put it, "God adopts some to hope of life and sentences others to eternal death. The Reformation had a direct and powerful impact on those realms where it gained control. Monasteries were sacked, their possessions seized by princes or sold off to the highest bidder; the monks and nuns, expelled from their cloisters, were encouraged to break their vows of chastity and find spouses, as Luther and his wife, a former nun, had done.

In the great cathedrals and in hundreds of smaller churches and chapels, the elaborate altar-pieces, bejeweled crucifixes, crystal reliquaries holding the bones of saints, and venerated statues and paintings were attacked as "idols" and often defaced or destroyed. Protestant congregations continued, for the most part, to celebrate the most sacred Christian ritual, the Eucharist or Lord's Supper, but they did so in a profoundly different spirit from the Catholic Church, more as commemoration than as miracle, and they now prayed not in the old liturgical Latin but in the vernacular.

The Reformation was at first vigorously resisted in England. Indeed, with the support of his ardently Catholic chancellor, Thomas More, Henry VIII personally wrote or at least lent his name to a vehement, often scatological attack on Luther's character and views, an attack for which the Pope granted him the honorific title "Defender of the Faith. Protestants who made their views known were persecuted, driven to flee the country or arrested, put on trial, and burned at the stake.

But the situation changed decisively when Henry decided to seek a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne Boleyn. Catherine had given birth to six children, but since only a daughter, Mary, survived infancy, Henry did not have the son he craved.

Then as now, the Catholic Church did not ordinarily grant divorce, but Henry's lawyers argued on technical grounds that the marriage was invalid and therefore, by extension, that Mary was illegitimate and hence unable to inherit the throne. Matters of this kind were far less doctrinal than diplomatic: Catherine, the daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, had powerful allies in Rome, and the Pope ruled against Henry's petition for a divorce.

A series of momentous events followed, as England lurched away from the Church of Rome. In Henry charged the entire clergy of England with having usurped royal authority in the administration of canon law the ecclesiastical law governing faith, morals, and disciplines, including such matters as divorce. The next year the Convocation submitted to the demand that the king be the final arbiter of canon law: one day later Thomas More resigned his post.

In Henry's marriage to Catherine was officially declared null and void, and on June 1 Anne Boleyn was crowned as queen. In the following year, the parliamentary Act of Succession confirmed the effects of the divorce and required an oath from all adult male subjects confirming the new dynastic settlement.

The Act of Supremacy, passed later in the year, formally declared the king to be "Supreme Head of the Church in England" and again required an oath to this effect. In and further acts made it treasonous to refuse the oath of royal supremacy or, as More had tried to do, to remain silent. The first victims were three Carthusian monks who rejected the oath — "How could the king, a layman," said one of them, "be Head of the Church of England?

A few weeks later, Fisher and More were convicted and beheaded. Between and the monasteries were suppressed and their vast wealth seized by the crown. Royal defiance of the authority of Rome was a key element in the Reformation but did not by itself constitute the establishment of Protestantism in England.

On the contrary, in the same year that Fisher and More were martyred for their adherence to Roman Catholicism, twentyfive Protestants, members of a sect known as Anabaptists, were burned for heresy on a single day. Through most of his reign, Henry remained an equal-opportunity persecutor, ruthless to Catholics loyal to Rome and hostile to many of those who espoused Reformation ideas, though many of these ideas gradually established themselves on English soil.

Even when Henry was eager to do so, it proved impossible to eradicate Protestantism, as it would later prove impossible for his successors to eradicate Catholicism. In large part this tenacity arose from the passionate, often suicidal heroism of men and women who felt that their souls' salvation depended upon the precise character of their Christianity and who consequentially embraced martyrdom. It arose too from a mid-fifteenth-century technological innovation that made it almost impossible to suppress unwelcome ideas: the printing press.

Early Protestants quickly grasped that with a few clandestine presses they could defy the Catholic authorities and flood the country with their texts. The greatest insurrection of the Tudor age was not over food, taxation, or land but over religion. Most people conformed, more or less willingly, to the structural and doctrinal changes commanded by the king and his ministers, but there were pockets of resistance, particularly in the north of England, from those who were loyal to the traditional religious order of Roman Catholicism and who resented the attempt to subordinate the church to the authority of the state.

On Sunday, October 1, , stirred up by their vicar, the parishioners of Louth in Lincolnshire, in the north of England, rose up in defiance of the ecclesiastical visitation sent to enforce royal supremacy. The rapidly spreading rebellion, which became known as the Pilgrimage of Grace, was led by the lawyer Robert Aske.

The city of Lincoln fell to the rebels on October 6, and though it was soon retaken by royal forces, the rebels seized cities and fortifications throughout Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and northern Lancashire.

Carlisle, Newcastle, and a few castles were all that were left to the king in the north. The Pilgrims soon numbered forty thousand, led by some of the region's leading noblemen. The Duke of Norfolk, representing the crown, was forced to negotiate a truce, with a promise to support the rebels' demands that the king restore the monasteries, shore up the regional economy, suppress heresy, and dismiss his evil advisers.

The Pilgrims kept the peace for the rest of , on the naive assumption that their demands would be met. Then, early in , Henry moved suddenly to impose order and capture the ringleaders. One hundred and thirty people, including lords, knights, heads of religious houses, and, of course, Robert Aske, were executed. Even in the twenty-first century, the words spoken by John of Gaunt in Shakespeare's Richard II remain among the most familiar as well as the most powerful celebrations of the English nation.

The literature of the Elizabethan age abounds with similar panegyrics to a nation secure in its separateness and in its superiority. Yet what can sometimes seem like the jingoistic fervor of the Elizabethans conceals a far more complicated and troubled reality. Most English writers were far from certain of the innate superiority of their nation — or even certain what their nation was. To begin with, England was not — and has never been — a "sceptred isle.

Still more troubled and productive of anxiety was England's relationship with the island of Ireland where Richard II leads a military expedition in Shakespeare's play, precipitating his own downfall. As for the wider world, the proud separateness celebrated by John of Gaunt was not so much chosen as enforced.

A Protestant state confronting a largely Catholic Europe over the channel, Elizabethan England with its excommunicated Queen was a lonely pariah among nations. The English were thus anxious to the point of paranoia about what foreign visitors might think of them. Little wonder that they sometimes attempted to compensate for these anxieties with outbursts of patriotic bluster. Rebellious Ireland presented the English not only with a problem of governance, but with the problem of cultural identity.

The more idealistic among the English administrators and adventurers who settled in Ireland in the later sixteenth century believed that if only the Irish could be taught 'civility' meaning English laws, English customs, and the English language , they would eventually become indistinguishable from the English themselves.

Pessimists countered that the Irish were by their very nature prone to savagery and rebellion. The implications for the native population were fairly dismal in either case: those who believed that the Irish were educable were prepared to resort to the most brutal measures to achieve their lofty aim, while those who did not saw no solution to the Irish problem but enslavement or extermination.

Yet while they wrestled with the question of Irish adaptability, English settlers like Edmund Spenser were confronted with worrying examples of English mutability: all around them they found the descendants of medieval English conquerors who had, over time, adopted Irish customs, dress and language, becoming all but indistinguishable from those whom they had supposedly conquered. Thus, the future of Englishness was also at stake in the Irish wars of the late sixteenth century.

Closer to home, England was bent on extending its hegemony over Wales and Scotland. Wales had been conquered in the late thirteenth century; in the s and 40s, it was fully incorporated into the English state, sending representatives to the Parliament in Westminster.

Yet the Welsh remained a separate people, with a separate language, and a fierce pride in their status as descendants of the ancient Britons, who had inhabited the island long before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. Indeed, the term "Briton" as commonly used referred exclusively to the Welsh. Yet "Briton" could also be used in a wider sense, to mean all inhabitants of the island, be they Welsh, English, or Scottish.

As English politicians bent their minds on subduing Scotland once and for all, they found it convenient to argue that they were really only asking the Scots to accept their common identity as Britons. The Scots countered that "Britain" was just another word for England. Then, when Scotland's King James came to the throne of England in , the tables were turned.

Now it was a Scottish king who insisted that his subjects should all call themselves "Britons," while the English found themselves clinging stubbornly to their Englishness. The long struggle over the meaning and future of Britishness was waged mostly by textual means, giving rise not only to innumerable propaganda pamphlets and treatises, but also to literary masterpieces such as Spenser's Faerie Queene and Shakespeare's King Lear. Whatever the boundaries of the state that emerged from these struggles, and whatever name it went by, everyone accepted that it would be ruled from London.

The rapid growth of London in the sixteenth century was an unprecedented phenomenon, and transformed both the way the English thought about their nation and the way they were viewed by visitors from abroad. It has been estimated that one in eight English people lived in London at some point in their lives. They took an intense interest both in the daily changing face of the metropolis and in its long and complex history; both facets of the city are recorded in exhaustive detail in John Stow's extraordinary Survey of London.

London was also the destination of the overwhelming majority of foreign visitors to England, be they ambassadors, merchants, Protestant refugees, or simply tourists, like the Swiss German Thomas Platter, who rounded off his tour of the city with a visit to the theater, to see a play by Shakespeare. The development of the English language is linked to the consolidation and strengthening of the English state.

Rather than the flowering of visual arts and architecture that had occurred in Italy, the Renaissance emerged in Britain through an intellectual orientation to humanism. A female monarch in a male world, Elizabeth ruled through a combination of adroit political maneuvering and imperious command, enhancing her authority by means of an extraordinary cult of love.

Renaissance literature is the product of a rhetorical culture, a culture steeped in the arts of persuasion and trained to process complex verbal signals. Summaries The English language had almost no prestige abroad at the beginning of the sixteenth century. One of the earliest sixteenth-century works of English literature, Thomas More's Utopia, was written in Latin for an international intellectual community.

It was only translated into English during the s, nearly a half-century after its original publication in Britain. By , though English remained somewhat peripheral on the continent, it had been transformed into an immensely powerful expressive medium, as employed by Shakespeare, Marlowe, and the translators of the Bible.

The Tudors imposed a much stronger central authority on the nation. The royal court was a center of culture as well as power, finding expression in theater, masques, fashion, and taste in painting, music, and poetry. The court fostered paranoia, and in this anxious atmosphere courtiers became highly practiced at crafting and deciphering graceful words with double or triple meanings.

For advice on the cultivation and display of the self, they turned to Castiglione's Il Cortigiano The Courtier. Beyond the court, London was the largest and fastest-growing city in Europe, and literacy increased throughout the century, in part due to the influence of Protestantism as well as the rise of the printing press. Freedom of the press did not exist, and much literature, especially poetry, still circulated in manuscript.

The movement now known as the Renaissance unleashed new ideas and new social, political and economic forces that gradually displaced the spiritual and communal values of the Middle Ages. The Renaissance came to England through the spiritual and intellectual orientation known as humanism. Education was still ordered according to the medieval trivium grammar, logic, rhetoric and quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, astrology, and music , and it emphasized Latin, the language of diplomacy, professions, and higher learning.

Officially at least, England in the early sixteenth century had a single religion, Catholicism. Henry declared himself supreme head of the Church of England through the Act of Supremacy. Henry was an equal-opportunity persecutor, hostile to Catholics and zealous reformers alike. Elizabeth I, though a Protestant, was cautiously conservative, determined to hold religious zealotry in check.

The court moved in an atmosphere of romance, with music, dancing, plays, and masques. A source of intense anxiety was Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic with a plausible claim to the English throne, whom Elizabeth eventually had executed. When England faced an invasion from Catholic Spain in , Elizabeth appeared in person before her troops wearing a white gown and a silver breastplate; the incident testifies to her self-consciously theatrical command of the grand public occasion as well as her strategic appropriation of masculine qualities.

Aesthetically, Elizabethan literature reveals a delight in order and pattern conjoined with a profound interest in the mind and heart. A permanent, freestanding public theater in England dates only from There was, however, a rich and vital theatrical tradition, including interludes and mystery and morality plays. The theaters had many enemies; moralists warned that they were nests of sedition, and Puritans charged that theatrical transvestism excited illicit sexual desires, both heterosexual and homosexual.

Nonetheless, the playing companies had powerful allies, including Queen Elizabeth, and continuing popular support. Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando furioso ca. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the status of England, its people, and its language in the early sixteenth century?

English travelers often returned from the Continent with foreign fashions, much to the delight of moralists. Intending his Utopia for an international intellectual community, Thomas More wrote in d Latin, since English had no prestige outside of England. Which of the following sixteenth-century works of English literature was translated into the English language after its first publication in Latin?

Which royal dynasty was established in the resolution of the so-called War of the Roses and continued through the reign of Elizabeth I? Which of the following shifts began in the reign of Henry VII and continued under his Tudor successors? From which of the following Italian texts might Tudor courtiers have learned the art of intrigue and the keys to gaining and keeping power? Who authored Il Cortigiano The Courtier , a book that was highly influential in the English court, providing subtle guidance on self-display?

Between and , the population of London: a remained constant. Who introduced the art of printing into England? To what does the phrase "the stigma of print" refer? Which of the following sixteenth-century poets was not a courtier? Which of the following statements is not an accurate reflection of education during the English Renaissance? What impulse probably accounts for the rise of distinguished translations of works, such as Homer's lliad and Odyssey, into English during the sixteenth century?

What was the only acknowledged religion in England during the early sixteenth century? Who began to ignite the embers of dissent against the Catholic church in November in a movement that came to be known as the Reformation? Which historical figure initiated a series of religious persecutions condemning Protestants as heretics and burning them at the stake in the s? Which of the following refers to the small area of Ireland, extending north from Dublin, over which the English government could claim effective control?

Which designates the theory that the reigning monarch possesses absolute authority as God's deputy? Which of the following describes the chief system by which writers received financial rewards for their literary production? In the Defense of Poesy, what did Sidney attribute to poetry?

The churchyard of St. Paul's Cathedral was well-known for its: a ruinous condition. Who owned the rights to a theatrical script? To what subgenre did the Senecan influence give rise, as evidenced in the first English tragedy Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex? What is blank verse? Which of the following is true about public theaters in Elizabethan England? Which was not an objection raised against the public theaters in the Elizabethan period?

Who succeeded Elizabeth I on the throne of England? That ferment was reflected in the literature of the era, which also registered a heightened focus on and analysis of the self and the personal life. However, little of this seems in evidence in the elaborate frontispiece to Michael Drayton's long "chorographical" poem on the landscape, regions, and local history of Great Britain , which appeared in the first years of the reign of the Stuart king James I — The frontispiece appears to represent a peaceful, prosperous, triumphant Britain, with England, Scotland, and Wales united, patriarchy and monarchy firmly established, and the nation serving as the great theme for lofty literary celebration.

Albion the Roman name for Britain is a young and beautiful virgin wearing as cloak a map featuring rivers, trees, mountains, churches, towns; she carries a scepter and holds a cornucopia, symbol of plenty. Ships on the horizon signify exploration, trade, and garnering the riches of the sea.

In the four corners stand four conquerors whose descendants ruled over Britain: the legendary Brutus, Julius Caesar, Hengist the Saxon, and the Norman William the Conqueror, "whose line yet rules," as Drayton's introductory poem states. Yet this frontispiece also registers some of the tensions, conflicts, and redefinitions evident in the literature of the period and explored more directly in the topics and texts in this portion of the NTO Web site.

It is Albion herself, not King James, who is seated in the center holding the emblems of sovereignty; her male conquerors stand to the side, and their smaller size and their number suggest something unstable in monarchy and patriarchy. Albion's robe with its multiplicity of regional features, as well as the "Poly" of the title, suggests forces pulling against national unity. Also, Poly-Olbion had no successors: instead of a celebration of the nation in the vein of Spenser's Faerie Queene or Poly-Olbion itself, the great seventeenthcentury heroic poem, Paradise Lost, treats the Fall of Man and its tragic consequences, "all our woe.

It also invites attention to how those assumptions are modified or challenged in the practices of actual families and households; in tracts on transgressive subjects cross-dressing, women speaking in church, divorce ; in women's texts asserting women's worth, talents, and rights; and especially in the upheavals of the English Revolution.

The protagonists here are not martial heroes but a domestic couple who must, both before and after their Fall, deal with questions hotly contested in the seventeenth century but also perennial: how to build a good marital relationship; how to think about science, astronomy, and the nature of things; what constitutes tyranny, servitude, and liberty; what history teaches; how to meet the daily challenges of love, work, education, change, temptation, and deceptive rhetoric; how to reconcile free will and divine providence; and how to understand and respond to God's ways.

The third topic, "Civil Wars of Ideas: Seventeenth-Century Politics, Religion, and Culture," provides an opportunity to explore, through political and polemical treatises and striking images, some of the issues and conflicts that led to civil war and the overthrow of monarchical government — These include royal absolutism vs. Anglicanism, church ritual and ornament vs.

The climax to all this was the highly dramatic trial and execution of King Charles I January , a cataclysmic event that sent shock waves through courts, hierarchical institutions, and traditionalists everywhere; this event is presented here through contemporary accounts and graphic images.

Early 17th Century 2 Gender, Family, Household — 17th Century Norms and Controversies In Early Modern England, both gender hierarchy, with the man at the top, and the husband's patriarchal role as governor of his family and household — wife, children, wards, and servants — were assumed to have been instituted by God and nature. So ordered, the family was seen as the secure foundation of society and the patriarch's role as analogous to that of God in the universe and the king in the state.

Women were continually instructed that their spiritual and social worth resided above all else in their practice of and reputation for chastity. Unmarried virgins and wives were to maintain silence in the public sphere and give unstinting obedience to father and husband, though widows had some scope for making their own decisions and managing their affairs.

Children and servants were bound to the strictest obedience. Inevitably, however, tension developed when such norms met with common experience, as registered in the records of actual households and especially in the complexities and ambiguities represented in literary treatments of love, courtship, marriage, and family relations, from Shakespeare's King Lear NAEL 8, 1.

Religious and legal definitions of gender roles and norms are proclaimed in the marriage liturgy from the Book of Common Prayer and in The Law's Resolutions of Women's Rights , both of which begin from the Genesis story of Adam and Eve's creation, marriage, and Fall. The marriage liturgy sets forth the purpose of marriage as the Church understood them, the contract of indissoluble marriage "till death us do part" , and the biblical texts underpinning patriarchy, solemnly advising the couple to live by these norms.

This, or a very similar ceremony, was understood to solemnize the marriage celebrated in Spenser's Epithalamion NAEL 8, 1. The Law's Resolution was designed to collect the several laws then in place regarding women's legal rights and duties in each of her three estates: unmarried virgin, wife, and widow. The unknown author or compiler discusses, sometimes in a remarkably ironic tone, the many disabilities under which a married woman must live and the new freedom enjoyed by the widow who had supposedly lost her "head" in losing her husband , as well as the vulnerability of all women of all ages and estates to rape.

These discussions illuminate the situation of the widowed Duchess of Malfi in Webster's play. These norms were also urged, and also modified, in advice books dealing with specific family roles and duties. A treatise on household government by John Dod and Robert Cleaver elaborates on and contrasts the duties of husband and wife, setting up explicit parallels between the household and the commonwealth.

Gervase Markham's book, The English HusWife , outlines the woman's responsibility to understand and administer medicines to her family and to have perfect skill in cookery. Richard Brathwaite's English Gentlewoman focuses on virtues and activities pertaining to women of the higher classes, drawing attention to expectations of widows' chastity. Thomas Fosset's tract on The Servant's Duty spells out the assumption that every relationship in society is founded on hierarchy.

In his Exposition of the Ten Commandments , John Dod asserts that the primary duty of parents is to correct their children with blows as necessary and that the woman's particular duty is to nurse her own child. Dorothy Leigh's often reprinted advice book The Mother's Blessing has quite different emphases: the need to bring up children with gentleness and to give them a good education.

She also urges her sons only to marry women they will love to the end and to make their wives companions, not servants. Actual families and households departed in various ways from the roles defined in such normative texts. The household of the Sidneys of Penshurst can be partly known through pictures — of the prominent courtier Robert Sidney, Lord Lisle, of their country estate Penshurst, and of his wife Barbara and six of her children; the eldest daughter in that portrait is the poet and romance writer Lady Mary Wroth NAEL 8, 1.

Also, a series of letters from Robert to Barbara over two decades reveals a good deal about their marital relationship, their disagreements about educating the children, and their economic difficulties. The household of the Sackvilles can be partly known through the picture of Knole, the country house of Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset, and his wife Anne Clifford, and the great family picture of the Cliffords, showing Anne as a girl of fifteen and as a widow of fifty-six.

Extracts from Anne's Diary of —19 record some part of her long legal struggle to regain lands she thought due her from her father's estate, the harsh opposition she met from the entire male court establishment, her strained relations with her husband over this matter, her maternal feelings and activities, and the round of her domestic life.

Some texts reveal direct challenges to, or themselves challenge, the cultural norms defining gender and household roles. A pair of texts, Hic Mulier and Haec Vir , call attention to a controversy from the years —20 over women wearing male attire; their title-page engravings display the satirized fashions. This controversy is related to the pamphlet war during the same years over the hoary issue of women's virtue and worth; Rachel Speght's Mouzell for Melastomus with its revisionist interpretation of the Genesis fall story, was probably the only contribution by a woman.

Milton, in The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce and three other treatises, directly challenged the doctrine of indissoluble marriage and the prohibitions on divorce, arguing the very radical proposition that incompatibility should be grounds for divorce, with right of remarriage. Also during the upheavals of the Civil War period, some women claimed voices in the public sphere: in a petition to Parliament , Leveller women asserted some political rights in the commonwealth; and Margaret Fell published a rationale in for allowing women to testify and preach in church, as Quakers often did.

Early 17th Century 3 Paradise Lost in Context Milton's great epic is built upon the stories and myths — in the Bible and in the classical tradition — through which Western men and women have sought to understand the meaning of their experience of life. Attention to some of these materials and to the ways in which Milton draws upon, and departs from, other versions and interpretations of those stories will enrich the reading of his poem.

The foundation story, of course, is the Genesis account of the Creation of the world and of Adam and Eve, culminating in the drama of their temptation and Fall. By Milton's time, the seventeenth century, that story had been reformulated in many translations in many languages and had accumulated many centuries of interpretive commentary, Jewish and Christian.

Milton, in undertaking an imaginative, poetic re-creation of that story, had necessarily to accept, revise, or counter the views offered by such influential commentators as Saint Augustine and the Reformation theologian John Calvin. The various commentators' views — about Adam and Eve, about the Edenic garden, about prelapsarian conditions of life, about the Tree of Knowledge, about the nature of man and woman as created, about marriage as first instituted, and about the causes of the Fall — can be usefully compared to Milton's own analyses in his theological tract Christian Doctrine, which remained unpublished until the nineteenth century, as well as his poetic representations of such matters in Paradise Lost.

During his tour of Italy in —39, Milton probably saw some of the numerous representations of aspects of the Genesis story in Renaissance paintings and tapestries. We do not know which ones he saw, but certain remarkable images may have stimulated his imagination. Ovid's narrative of the myth of Narcissus resonates throughout the story told by Milton's Eve about her first coming to consciousness NAEL 8, 1.

Two allegorical interpretations of the Narcissus myth — by Milton's contemporary George Sandys, the translator of Ovid, and by Sigmund Freud — may highlight how Milton reworks that myth. In Joshua Sylvester's translation that work was extremely popular, and Milton certainly knew it. Finally, the epic tradition itself was a major literary resource for Milton: it is sampled here through the opening passages — propositions and invocations — of four epics central to Milton's idea of that genre: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Torquato Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered.

Milton's epic proposition and invocation NAEL 8, 1. Homer and Virgil did not use rhyme, and Milton scorned it in heroic poems as a "troublesome and modern bondage"; accordingly, the classical epics are represented here by modern unrhymed translations. Tasso did employ rhyme, as did his Elizabethan translator Edward Fairfax. The first important criticism of Milton's epic was provided by his good friend the poet Andrew Marvell, in a commendatory poem published in along with the second edition of Paradise Lost.

Responding visually to Paradise Lost are a set of engravings by John Baptist Medina that were included in the elaborate folio edition of Paradise Lost in Several of the Medina images, notably those included here, provide their own interesting interpretations of crucial scenes in the poem. Early 17th Century 4 Civil Wars of Ideas The many tensions which came to a head in the English Civil War —48 had been building for a half-century or more.

The ascent of James I to the throne in inaugurated a profound cultural shift as Elizabeth's styles of self-representation were replaced by those of a king who defined himself as an absolute monarch and God's anointed deputy, through several cultural roles. Already an author, James reprinted at the time of his accession his True Law of Free Monarchies originally published in , defending royal absolutism grounded on the divine right of kings.

In his very elaborate coronation procession through the City of London, he passed through spectacular Roman triumphal arches at various stages, thereby identifying himself as a new Augustus. That Roman style was emphasized by the designer Inigo Jones in sets for court masques and in new buildings such as the banqueting hall at Whitehall, the site for many such masques. An early court entertainment, Jonson's Masque of Blackness , represented James as a sun king.

James also portrayed himself as patriarch-king: in the Basilikon Doran , addressed to the heir apparent, Prince Henry, and in the oftenrevised portrait of his family, shown here. Figures reclining on one arm have died: James's queen, Anne of Denmark, is so shown, as is Prince Henry, whose death dashed the hopes of the many reformist Protestants who saw in him a leader in the struggle against Rome. At the right, James's daughter, Elizabeth, and her husband Frederick, Elector Palatine — staunch Protestants whose claims to the throne of Bohemia touched off the thirty-year war between Catholic and Protestant powers on the continent.

Descendants of their numerous progeny soon peopled the thrones of Europe, including England with George I in Conflicts over styles of belief and devotion, already present in Elizabeth's realm, intensified with James's accession, though most English people remained within the established church. Controversies regarding doctrine predestination vs. Such controversies are also visually represented in different kinds of emblems, a popular multimedia form combining text and picture, and often suggestive for the poetic imagery of the period.

One flashpoint in the conflict over culture was the Book of Sports, issued by James I in and reissued by Charles I in , explicitly authorizing and promoting the Sunday sports and rural festivals denounced by many Puritans as profanations of the sabbath, pagan in origin, and occasions of sin. William Prynne's notorious Histrio-Mastix , published a few months before Charles reissued the Book of Sports, voices the most extreme Puritan denunciation of both rural and court culture — not only maypoles, mumming, and Sunday sports but also court masques and stage plays; Prynne was brutally punished for this direct affront to the monarchs.

In the s the Puritan historian Lucy Hutchinson supplied a retrospective account and interpretation of these culture wars and their political and religious import. As the s wore on, Puritans of various kinds pressed for more reformation in doctrine, worship, and church government to eradicate "idolatrous" and "papist" elements bishops, liturgy, altars, religious icons while Charles I's Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, imposed those elements ever more strictly.

When war broke out in , Puritans of all sorts portrayed England as a new Israel whose people would replicate in some ways the experience of that other chosen people. A much-contested issue concerned the duty of the Christian magistrate toward religion: should he establish the "true" church and root out blasphemy and heresy as Church of England bishops and most Presbyterians thought see Milton's poem On the New Forcers of Conscience [NAEL 8, 1.

Should he offer wide toleration outside an established church, as some sectaries and Milton thought? The most far-reaching defense of complete religious liberty and entire separation of church and state is Roger Williams's Bloody Tenet of Persecution , which draws in interesting ways on his experiences in America.

On the political side, the central issue became the location of sovereign power in the state. James's literary defenses of royal absolutism grounded on the divine right of kings were kept in play by Charles I, who insisted on his absolute prerogatives as a monarch and governed without a parliament for eleven years.

Opponents of Charles developed a countertheory that placed supremacy in the people's representative, the Parliament and later the Commons. These two theories were acted out dramatically at the trial of Charles I: the king by argument and gesture refused to recognize the authority of the court appointed by a segment of the Commons to try him, while the court president, John Bradshaw, insisted on the court's authority as deriving from the people's representative.

The execution of an anointed king on January 30, , was a stupendous matter, graphically portrayed in many contemporary accounts and pictures. The need to defend the regicide and the new commonwealth "without King or House of Lords" prompted Milton to give forceful expression, in The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates February , to a radical contract theory of government analogous to that developed by contemporary republicans and Levellers: sovereignty always resides in the people, who merely delegate power to, and can always revoke it from, any ruler or any government system.

Linking both politics and religion was the ongoing conflict about idolatry and iconoclasm in religion but also in the civic realm, around the issue of sacred kingship and the supposed sacrilege of executing an anointed king. A book purportedly written by King Charles and published immediately after his execution, Eikon Basilike [The King's Image], presents in its text and especially its frontispiece Charles as holy martyr and suffering Christ; that work prompted Milton's fierce denunciation of this "idol" in his Eikonoklastes [The Image Breaker].

Milton's post-Restoration closet drama Samson Agonistes contains an exchange on the issue of idolatry that resonates with the dilemmas of conscience faced by Puritan dissenters when they were denied toleration and faced stringent penalties for refusing to worship in the established church. Early 17th Century 5 Emigrants and Settlers "I like a plantation in a pure soil; that is, where people are not displanted to the end to plant in others. For else it is rather an extirpation than a plantation.

Such colonies were, of course, never more than a philosopher's pipe-dream. By , there was very little "pure soil" left anywhere on the globe, excepting the forbidding polar regions. The territories which proved the main targets of English settlement in the seventeenth century were the neighboring island of Ireland and the eastern coast of North America, both home to sizeable native populations.

In both cases, "plantation" often went hand in hand with "extirpation. When the population of Utopia exceeds the ideal number, More writes: they choose out of every city certain citizens, and build up a town under their own laws in the next land where the inhabitants have much waste and unoccupied ground.

And if they resist and rebel, then they make war against them. For they count this the most just cause of war, when any people holdeth a piece of ground void and vacant to no good nor profitable use, keeping other from the use and possession of it, which notwithstanding by the law of nature ought thereof to be nourished and relieved.

The supposed law of nature that justified the use of force in expelling peoples from their lands would be cited constantly by colonial theorists in the seventeenth century. John Donne stresses this very argument in his Sermon to the Virginia Company , ranking the "law of nature" alongside the "power rooted in grace" as justifications for settlement in inhabited lands. One of the few to question this logic was the radical Roger Williams, who infuriated the New England authorities by arguing "That we have not our land by patent from the king, but that the natives are the true owners of it, and that we ought to repent of such a receiving it by patent.

They are never mentioned, for instance, by the Massachusetts poet Anne Bradstreet, who concentrates instead on the relationship between Old England and New. Like many Puritans on both sides of the Atlantic, Bradstreet believed that settlements like the Massachusetts Bay Colony were blazing a trail of godly government that the mother country might eventually follow.

Roger Williams, too, while rejecting Puritan intolerance, believed that the English had much to learn from the experience, good and bad, of the New England settlers. Simply ignoring the existence of the native inhabitants was less possible for the English writing in or about Ireland. A long history of cultural and military conflict had given the English an almost paranoid awareness of the intractable threat posed by the native Irish. The seemingly intractable problem of Ireland was addressed by some of the greatest literary figures of the period, from Edmund Spenser in his View of the Present State of Ireland to John Milton in his Observations Upon the Articles of Peace , as well as by countless others.

Could the Irish, as some writers hoped, be weaned from their "savagery" and trained up in civilized manners? Or must they, as the settler Thomas Blenerhasset chillingly proposed, be hunted like animals for English sport? Blenerhasset's proposal dates from the early years of the Ulster Plantation, in which the English aimed to solve their Irish problem once and for all through a program of land seizures and mass settlement by English and Scottish Protestants.

The historical impact of the Ulster Plantation can be seen today in Northern Ireland, the one part of the island still under British rule. Even as she sent her children forth to settle beyond the seas, England played host to immigrants from abroad. These included a handful of natives of the New World including, for a brief period, Pocahontas , and larger numbers of Europeans.

Among the latter were some so-called marranos — Spanish Jews who had, officially at least, converted to Christianity. Jews had in fact been banned from English soil since their expulsion in the thirteenth century. Under Protector Cromwell's regime, however, the anti-Semitic laws were eased, and Jews began to return openly to England.

Even as the English confronted alien cultures in their new settlements abroad, England itself was becoming an ever more multicultural society. As ideas changed, so did the conditions of their dissemination. Many leading poets were staunch royalists, or Cavaliers, who suffered heavily in the war years. Yet two of the best writers of the period, John Milton and Andrew Marvell, sided with the republic.

Summaries After more than four decades on the throne, Elizabeth I died in James VI of Scotland succeeded her without the attempted coups that many had feared. Writers jubilantly noted that the new ruler had literary inclinations. Yet both in his literary works and on the throne James expounded authoritarian theories of kingship that seemed incompatible with the English tradition of "mixed" government. Kings, James believed, derived their power from God rather than from the people.

James was notorious for his financial heedlessness, and his disturbing tendency to bestow high office on good-looking male favorites. Yet James was successful in keeping England out of European wars, and encouraging colonial projects in the New World and economic growth at home. Between and , Charles attempted to rule without Parliament. Charles married the French princess Henrietta Maria, who promoted a conversion back to Catholicism.

The appointment of William Laud as the archbishop of Canterbury further alienated Puritans, as Laud aligned the doctrine and ceremonies of the English church with Roman Catholicism. Yet the twenty-year period between and had seen the emergence of concepts that would remain central to bourgeois thought for centuries to come: religious toleration, separation of church and state, freedom from press censorship, and popular sovereignty.

Among the more radical voices to emerge in the period were those of Roger Williams, who advocated religious toleration, the Leveller, John Lilburne, who advocated universal male suffrage, and the Digger, Gerrard Winstanley, who advocated Christian communism.

Early seventeenth-century writers such as John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Robert Burton inherited a system of knowledge founded on analogy, order, and hierarchy. In this system, a monarch was like God, the ruler of the universe, and also like a father, the head of the family. Yet this conceptual system was beginning to crumble in the face of the scientific and empirical approach to knowledge advocated by Francis Bacon. Although elite poets like John Donne often preferred to circulate their works in manuscript, the printing of all kinds of literary works was becoming more common.

Printers and acting companies were obliged to submit works to the censor before public presentation, and those who flouted the censorship laws were subject to heavy punishment. Since overt criticism or satire of the great was dangerous, political writing before the Civil War was apt to be oblique and allegorical. These included classical elegy and satire, epigram, verse epistle, meditative religious lyric, and the country-house poem. Jonson distinguished himself as an acute observer of urban manners.

He mentored a group of younger poets, including Herrick and Carew, known as the Tribe or Sons of Ben. The reigns of the first two Stuart kings also marked the entry of women in some numbers into authorship and publication. The Civil War was disastrous for the English theater, with the closure of the playhouses in Ben Jonson, The Masque of Blackness.

Shakespeare, The Tempest. John Donne, The First Anniversary. Edmund Waller, Poems Archbishop Laud executed. Republic declared. Katherine Philips, Collected Poems. Who succeeded Elizabeth I in , establishing the Stuart dynasty? James I liked to imagine himself as a modern version of which ruler?

Which writer was not active under both Elizabeth I and James I? Which of the following was characteristic of the court of James I? What was the intended target of the Gunpowder Plot in ?

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Norton anthology western literature torrent The Ninth Edition offers more complete works a. Milton's post-Restoration closet drama Samson Agonistes contains an exchange on the issue of idolatry that resonates with the dilemmas of conscience faced by Puritan dissenters when they were denied toleration and faced stringent penalties for refusing click worship in the established church. Its existence was known from allusions to it, but no copies of it were thought to have survived. Even peoples whom English writers routinely, viciously stigmatised as torrent alien — Italians, Indians, Turks, and Jews — have a surprising instability in the Elizabethan imagination and may appear for brief, intense moments as powerful models to be admired go here emulated before they resume their place as emblems of despised otherness. Also, in emulation of the early Christian desert fathers, both men and women often chose to live as hermits or recluses instead of joining religious communities. As discoveries multiplied, it became clear that the moderns knew things of which the ancients had been ignorant. It is Albion herself, not King James, who is seated in the center holding the emblems of sovereignty; norton anthology male conquerors western literature to the side, and their smaller size and their number suggest something unstable in monarchy and patriarchy.
Uragiri wa boku no namae o shitteiru 01 vostfr torrent New standards of taste were set by what the people of London wanted, and art joined with commerce to satisfy those desires. If these windows on the Reformation offer a revealing glimpse of the inner lives of men and women in Tudor England, the subsection entitled "The Wider World" provides a glimpse of the huge world that lay beyond the boundaries of the kingdom, a world that the English were feverishly attempting to explore and exploit. Those doctrines and structures, above all the interpretation of the central ritual of the eucharist, or Lord's Supper, were contested with murderous ferocity, as the fates of the Protestant martyr Anne Askew and the Catholic martyr Robert Aske make painfully clear. Catherine had given birth to six children, but since only a daughter, Mary, survived infancy, Henry did not have the son he craved. What historical figure promoted the rapid growth of a high Anglican faction within the church whose ceremony, ritual, and doctrine more closely resembled Roman Catholicism?
Tepid peppermint torrent Moreover, the theater is by definition a collaborative form, and in Marlowe's time the collaboration frequently extended to the text. The styles of The Owl and the Nightingale and Ancrene Riwle show what about the poetry and prose written around the year ? That story is of special interest because it go here the same plot as The Wife of Bath's Tale, except that in this tale the hero is not getting himself but King Arthur off the hook. Even when Henry was eager to do so, it proved impossible to eradicate Protestantism, as it would later prove impossible for his successors to eradicate Catholicism. Christian writers like the Beowulf poet looked back on their pagan ancestors with a mixture of admiration and sympathy.
Norton anthology western literature torrent Jews had in fact been banned from English soil since their expulsion in the thirteenth century. Its existence was known from allusions to it, but no copies norton anthology western literature torrent it were thought to have survived. Dominic and St. These were this web page "French books" that Malory, as his editor and printer William Caxton tells us, "abridged into English," and gave them the definitive form from which Arthurian literature has survived in poetry, prose, art, and film into modern times. The foundation story, of course, is the Genesis account of the Creation of the world and of Adam and Eve, culminating in the drama of their temptation and Fall. Farther afield, merchants from cities such as London and Bristol established profitable trading links to markets in North Africa, Turkey, and Russia. Middle Ages 5 The Linguistic and Literary Context of Beowulf From our point of view, it is appropriate to think of the language and literature of Anglo-Saxon England as "Old English," because the language is the remote ancestor of the English spoken today.
Norton anthology western literature torrent Milton, in The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce and three other treatises, directly challenged the doctrine of indissoluble marriage and the prohibitions on divorce, arguing the very radical proposition that incompatibility should be grounds for divorce, with right of remarriage. In the thirteenth century, clerics turned the sagas of Arthur and his knights — especially Sir Lancelot — into immensely long prose romances that disparaged worldly chivalry and the love of women and advocated spiritual chivalry and sexual purity. Also, Poly-Olbion had no norton anthology western literature torrent instead of a celebration of the nation in the vein of Spenser's Faerie Queene or Poly-Olbion itself, the great seventeenthcentury heroic poem, Paradise Lost, treats the Fall of Man and its tragic consequences, "all our woe. Intending his Utopia for an international intellectual community, Thomas More wrote in d Latin, since English had no prestige outside of England. Although it dates centuries after Beowulf, the remarkable corpus of Icelandic literature from the twelfth through the thirteenth centuries provides us learn more here analogous stories and materials that bring us into closer contact with the kinds of materials from which Beowulf was fashioned. Summaries After more than four decades on the throne, Elizabeth I died in
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Honest trailer game of thrones vostfr torrent Homer and Virgil did not use rhyme, and Milton scorned it in heroic poems as a "troublesome and modern bondage"; accordingly, the classical epics are represented here by modern unrhymed translations. To what does the phrase "the stigma of print" refer? Who is the author of Piers Plowman? To begin with, England was not see more and has never been — a "sceptred isle. In the late-medieval genre of estates satire, all three estates are portrayed as selfishly corrupting and disrupting a mythical social order believed to have prevailed in a past happier age. When England faced an invasion from Catholic Spain inElizabeth appeared in person before her troops wearing a white gown and a silver breastplate; the incident testifies to her self-consciously theatrical command of the grand public occasion as well as her strategic appropriation of masculine qualities.

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