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Carlsson , pp. Elgenstierna —36 6, p. On the one hand, the old elite took charge of the making of the new dynasty — in a practical sense by Bernadottes election and subsequent installation, and in a symbolic sense by fabricating and presenting the imagery the new dynasty, not least through the ceremonial medium. On the other hand, the old men constituted the actual making of the new dynasty as holders of the high offices of government.
Charles xiv's well-documented "Gustavian fright" should be put in perspective. True, he was suspiciously on guard against any hint of a restoration of the old dynasty; by law he banned contacts with the deposed king or his family, and with ruthless determination he ordered the eradication of the remaining memorials of Gustav iv Adolf.
Upon his arrival an alliance was forged between the new king and the old men, lasting for decades, and ensuring a successful dynastic transition by anchoring the new dynasty in an existing elite fabric of Swedish society. Returning to the funeral procession in , it also indicates the con- tinuation of the story.
The death of Charles was neither the end of dynasty nor of the power elite. Instead, a new chapter was opened. Further back in the procession came the new king, Oskar 1, surrounded and supported by the loyal servants handed down to him by his father.
The intertwined histories of dynasty and power elite — quite literally — marched on. Bilden och de historiska vetenskaperna Lund Charles August died, presumably of stroke, during a military manoeuvre, but rumours circulated for some time that he had been poisoned by Count von Fersen. As a result ofthis, the Count was brutally lynched by a mob.
Charles XIV, posing in a portrait commemorating his anniversary as king of Sweden. He is wearing the uniform of a French Marshal while standing in a room at the Royal Palace ofStockholm. Through the window is seen the church of Skeppsholmen, built on his initiative. The portrait reminds the viewer of the connection between the old and the new dynasty.
The new dynasty is represented by the Crown Prince standing next to his father who is holding is right hand on top of the head of his grandson Prince Charles as ifhe was blessing him. Oil painting by Fredrik Westin c. NM Grh Apart from Charles XIV himself, the coronation painting carefully depicts two additional royalties. On the far left, Princess Sofia Albertina, the last remaining member of the Gustavian royal family, represents the lineage of the old dynasty.
Further to the right, Crown Prince Oskar represents the future of the new dynasty. Oil painting by Pehr Krajft the Younger The Acclamation ofKing Charles xiv in upon his ascension to the throne taking place in front of the Royal Palace of Stockholm. The royal family and representatives of the four estates are sitting in a temporary wooden loggia. Warships salute him with the citizenry watching and cheering from the bridge. The king was soon to move into the apartmentformerly occupied by his adoptive father.
Oilpainting by Carl Stephan Bennet. NM In the painting we see the sculptor Bengt Erland Fogelberg surprised by a visitor -us - while working on the Odin statue in bis studio in Rome. The sculpture was commissioned in It was probably intended to be the focal point of the planned museum at Rosendal, as the Norse god was often used as a personification of Charles XIV.
The sculpture was a success, and was celebrated as a masterpiece upon its delivery in Oilpainting by Carl Stephan Bennet, c. Oilpainting by Charles XV. Uppsala universitets konstsamling. Photo: Uppsala universitets konstsamling. They are contemplating the content of the poem cited in the text, seemingly at the moment being read aloud by the prelate, standing in front of the king in the painting.
Oil painting by Johan Way The stone was the subject of several articles in The Swedish State Paper in the light of a testimony on both the loyalty of the Swedish people and the Norse entrench- ment of Charles xiv. Although the deposed king, Gustav iv Adolf, along with his wife and children, had been deported as a result of the revolution in , his older relatives still remained. Thus, with slight trepidation they all gathered at the Royal Palace in Stockholm to receive their new member.
Incidentally, there were no children around for the first time in the history of the palace, and the inhabitants were elderly. The individual royal family members mentioned above formed separate households to which different sets of courtiers and servants belonged, who were also housed in or near the Palace. This included separate kitchens for each household on the ground level of the Palace.
As some living space had become vacant due to the preceding political turmoil, the pool of available accommodations had increased. It consisted of the apartments of the deposed king, his family and the late duke, all mentioned above, and of the deceased first elected crown prince, Charles August of Augustenborg. But as we shall see, this was not as simple an issue as one might believe since accommodation was a symbolic carrier of social and political connotations.
As David Kertzer claims: "Through symbolism we recognize who are the powerful and who are the weak, and through the manipulation of symbols the powerful reinforce their authority. A prime example often discussed is Versailles, where the court rituals and the physical spaces complemented each other in the production and reproduction of power and social difference. This promoted many opportunities for change in social and spatial practice which impinged on the perceptions of status and power.
The allocation of living quarters at the Royal Palace had not been stat- ic during its more than half a century of occupancy. The distribution was continuously reconsidered in order to reflect events of social significance, as the official correspondence between the king and the Marshal of the Realm testifies.
In particular the two latter occasions usually caused the greatest upheaveal. This affected not only the royal family, but also courtiers and servants. Similar correspondence and protocols exist from earlier periods as well. See the accompanying topic register, B , p. Unfortunately, some of the letters in question are missing from the archive, but it is possible to follow the changes from the headings. Mediating power in built form London , pp.
According to cognitive psychologist Albert Bandura, "social structures represent authorized systems of rules, social practices, and sanctions designed to regulate human affairs". The social practice is thus constituted both by structural factors pulling towards maintaining status quo and agentic factors enabling change. The implementation of social power and the spatial practice connected with it is thus partially dependent on agency. See p. Wilkes, Knowledge in minds. Individual and collectiveprocesses in cognition Hove , pp.
Cognitive dissonance may lead to alteration of a schema, which then better fits the input. Still, a person may disregard or misinterpret new information if it fits badly with already firmly estab- lished schemas, and the human tendency to keep schemas intact appears to be strong. Thus, they greatly influence our conceptions of situations and social roles and therefore how to behave. With this in mind it becomes easier to extrapolate the possible motivations behind the way people act in different situations, as will be seen in my discussion.
Alterations in space allocation and formation during Charles xivs residency will hint at a new understand- ing of how change and continuity worked in his social practice and spatial politics. In addition, a selection of contemporary diaries and memoires, as well as official archival records, has been used as a comple- ment to confirm and catch fragments of the actual contemporary experience and understanding of the Palace as social space.
Two of the latter sources are more exhaustive, and are therefore introduced in detail below. The foremost inside source is the diary kept by Queen Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta. Political reflections alternate with anecdotes concerning everyday life. With critical close-reading, the diary becomes useful as an eye-witness account.
It was transcribed and published , with a running com- mentary in the footnotes referring to other corroborative or refuting sources of the time. Other archival material has also been used by the editors to sub- stantiate its contents, and to offer alternative or more developed viewpoints through additional data. Martin Olsson ed. Nauckhoff wrote memoires at the end of his life, which to all appearances were based on diary notes, offering the most comprehensive account of life with Charles xiv, both as crown prince and as king.
For many years Nauckhoff was entrusted with different positions at court, starting out as the crown princes ordinance officer in , and ending as the head of the royal household before leaving the court in For various reasons he was less than enamoured by the kings person, and there are many disparaging remarks in his narrative. Nevertheless, he is regarded as fairly de- pendable as far as facts go.
I will here attempt to offer a reading without falling into that trap, and instead provide alternative interpretations based on a discussion of the power impli- cations of the events and the kings behaviour included in Nauckhoffs texts. Extracts from his memoires were published in a journal, Illustrerad tidning, in , and in by Arvid Ahnfelt in the second volume of his collection of historic letters, diaries and memoires Ursvenska hojvets och aristokratiens lif.
It is the latter publication which has been used in this essay. The Royal Palace - the Constructed Enviroment19 The original castle of Stockholm, partly a medieval and partly a renaissance building complex, was to a large extent burnt to the ground in The architect Nicodemus Tessin the younger was commissioned to develop plans for a new palace.
Tessins role model Bernini has been credited with claiming: "A building is a faithful reflection of the prince, therefore a prince should build large and magnifi- cently or not at all". Nicodemus Tessin d. Tiden, mannen, verket 2 Stockholm , p. See Dovey P- '6: "A dominant built mass or volume signifies the control over re- sources necessary to its production"; thus, size matters.
In addition, Tessin also laid plans to monumentalise the urban environment surrounding the palace. In real- ity it took fifty years, with long interludes of inactivity. The first royal couple to take up residency in the palace was King Adolf Frederick and Queen Lovisa Ulrika, along with their children. Absolutism was however the ideal of this couple, and they tried repeatedly with no success to reclaim power.
Vahlne , p. The previous royal couple had no descendants and Adolf Frederick, a prince from Holstein-Gottorp, was offered the crown. Sweden Cambridge , passim. Wollin, "Den sengustavianska tiden ", in Martin Olsson ed. Of course, already in Tessins day relative status not only between different apartments but also different rooms was signified through the monetary value of their objects and decorative details as well as the character of the art placed there as Vahlne , p.
The second floor was more or less reserved for ceremonial use as the State Apartment. Eventually, in some lodgings, the so-called private apartment became more distinct and in- timate through the aid of entresolling by the end of the eighteenth century. The ground floor and the mezzanine contain many smaller rooms, while the first and second floors contain mainly large apartments, with a few large and some small rooms, as well as two huge spaces with evident repre- sentational aspects: the Hall of the Realm Rikssalen and the Palace Chapel.
Within the large apartments all rooms are arranged in interconnecting dou- ble rows to facilitate easy movement and grand vistas. Large apartments are placed opposite each other with monumental staircases between them in all three wings. While the apartments do communicate with each other, they are spatially separated by voluminous stairwells. This arrangement ensured a high degree of independence for each separate user and simplified subdivi- sion when necessary.
Spatially, one may summarise that social hierarchy is defined through the aid of scale, size, and relative position with a strong vertical emphasis, and a weaker horizontal one. Social inequality or differentiation is conceptually demonstrated through the same means, and the allocation of space to vari- ous functionaries and functions corresponded with them, at least until the reign of Charles xiv.
Members of the royal family resided mainly on the first floor. The king also had access to the State Apartment on the second floor. A high-ceilinged room is said to be entresolled when it is divided into two low-ceilinged rooms by an intermediate new floor.
Usually this entresol would be positioned at the furthest end of an apartment beyond the state rooms. The plans show the layout ofthe mezzanine top andground bottom floor ofthe Royal Palace, where courtiers and servants had their quarters. The kitchens occupied part ofthe ground floor as well. The drawings are digitally reproduced from Martin Olsson ed. The plans show the layout ofthe first bottom and second top floor ofthe Royal Palace of Stockholm, which in principle were reserved for the members ofthe Royal Family.
The drawings are digitally reproducedfrom Martin Olsson? In other words, the Palace contains a number of separate abodes of vary- ing sizes, so that as many as possible of the members of the royal family, their entourage and servants might be housed as befitted their respective ranks. Therefore, the smallest of changes in the distribution, disposition, access and allocation of space would have had a socially significant meaning for both visitors and inhabitants. In fact, subtle changes in spatial and social practice may be of greater importance than the aesthetic field in reveal- ing power relations and social standing within a built environment.
The apartment, which he until then had occupied, was to 37 Leijonhufvud , pp. Until these were done, Charles John lived in the rooms of the deceased crown prince, Charles August, for a few months. Precisely where these lodgings were located is not stated in the letter of the Marshal of the Realm referring to these arrangements, but the room allocation tables in Stockholms slotts historia indicate that they may have been on the ground floor facing Skeppsbron.
The kings refurbishment was initiated only after Charles Augusts demise, when the imminent arrival not only of a crown prince but also of a crown princess and a prince made other arrangements imperative. Thus, from until , Charles came to occupy the former ducal apartment of Charles xiii on the second floor. There was no established precedent as to where the crown prince ought to be lodged. Still, when Charles XIII turned over his own former apartment he established an observable link between adoptive father and adoptive son, stressing their dynastic relationship while emphasis- ing Charles's position as king-to-be.
Thus, in these early years, we find a clear case of a symbolically confirmed spatial and social continuity between the passing dynasty and the coming one. Charles himself lacked the power to de- cide over where and how he would be provided with living space within the Palace.
For good reasons though, he accepted the space allotted to him since the dynastic spatial implications served to bolster his position as legitimate heir to the throne. The fact that Charles was a newcomer with an initally weak position made it all the more imperative that he accommodate himself to established social practice in order to be accepted and assimilated. To help him adapt and adopt correct performance, he was surrounded, as Mikael Alm demonstrates in a previous chapter of this volume, by potential advisors in the shape of aristocrats of the old regime.
This guaranteed a smooth transition. Leijonhufvud , p. This and other breaches with established protocol signalled a social distinc- tion made between her and former crown princesses with royal or aristocratic lineage. Charles became affronted initally by the belittling measures and tried to ensure the customary welcome, but was unable to persuade the king to change his decision.
He therefore opted for another strategy: referring to the supposed shyness and inexperience of Desideria, he made sure that she was received by an even fewer number of ladies-in-waiting than the king had intended, attempting to mask a slight as caring concern. No matter that the Gustavian princes had thought them fashionable, Desideria found them indicative of social inferiority and not commensurate with her new dignity as a crown princess.
What most rankled was the fact that the crown princess' bedroom was placed in the entresol suite instead of preceding it. For this reason the bedroom should be spa- cious. It most likely implied an assumption that she would not indulge in receptions or take a major role in the social life of 42 Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok —42 8, p. In effect, she was seen to be firmly set aside as an insignificant, possibly embarrassing adjunct of the crown prince; to be tolerated, but not much more.
Apparently, after her arrival in Stockholm the crown princess eventually became aware of the import of her treatment and complained, which only led to her becoming alienated from her new adopted family. The queen in her diary suggested that Desiderias conduct in this affair was proof of her low descent and lack of adaptability, deliberately not recognizing it as a very real concern in a society where legitimacy and rank were expressed through privileges, appropriate ceremonies and commensurate spatial and social prac- tice.
The ladies assigned to her court also became tarred with the same brush and reacted strongly to their demotion. Not surprisingly, Crown Princess Desideria found both the social and outdoor climate of Sweden in equal measures unpleasant and returned to Paris after a few months, refusing to return until more than a decade had passed.
She left Sweden in June the year of her arrival and did not return until The primary sources reveal that Charles lived in the space of the Palace more or less according to expectation for a long time. This was the case dur- ing his years as crown prince and for a few years as king.
From Queen Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas diary it is evident that he took great care to appear social 47 Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok 8, pp. The most prestigious rooms were those that were spatially closest to the members of the royal family or held the largest number of rooms. The king would also make an appearance there at 8 pm, presumably after having had dinner with his closest retinue.
Kertzers discussion on "Investing and Divesting of Power", pp. The king is comfortably seated, and is dictating to Count Erik Lewenhaupt. This unusual image has the character of a snapshot; Charles XIV is portrayed as a private person. The painting presents a relaxed atmosphere and has rarely been published. Most likely, the painting was only intended for the family. The painter was originally a member ofPrincess Sofia Albertina's court, and ivhen shepassed away, he was probably transferred to the kings court.
Oilpainting by Carl Stephan Bennet, unknown date. This was clearly a gendered division of duties, allthough it also reflected the hierarchy of the place, since the queen was the only woman at the Palace who entertained. The small size of the lodgings of the ladies- in-waiting precluded the possibility of them ever being able to receive guests in their rooms in the same way they could have done in their own homes.
Life at the court of Charles XIII was not immune to change despite its reliance on established precedence. In France a round table with chairs in the middle of the salon became de rigeur in the early nineteenth century. One solution is to keep the symbolism connected with the leader alive even after 58 Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok 8, pp.
In the case of Charles, it became even more important to stress his legitimacy by keeping the link to the past alive since he was not, as the saying goes, born to the purple. He also acted swiftly when the old king died in Within a few hours of this event which occurred late in the evening, he secured oaths of allegience from important power holders before the break of dawn. The bedroom of the old king though, was kept intact to honour his memory and to maintain a visible link between the two.
Charless former apartment was turned over to his son Oskar, just as he had been instated in the apartment of his foster father a dec- ade earlier. Their switching lodgings was a reenactment of what took place when they arrived in Sweden, and functioned as an induction ritual in a period of transition affirming their right to their respective roles. By living in the kings apartment Charles xiv became the king, and by living in what was now perceived as the crown princes apartment his son Oskar became in effect crown prince.
These two apartments had become charged with royal charisma. Most notably was the dismissal of several of her former ladies-in-waiting, so that her court became reduced in size. One consequence of this was that those who had to leave also needed to vacate their rooms at the Palace, and some had to give up their stipends. Charles allowed this process to take its time as the ledgers of the Marshal of the Realm show, not robbing people of their privileges too quickly.
There was a more pertinent reason for not being overly hasty in moving the old queen from her chambers than mere kindness. The physi- cal proximity of Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas apartment and the kings may have worked as a dynastic reassurance, as she was his adoptive queen mother. This was consonant with Charless practice of using the elderly Princess Sofia Albertina as a symbolic consort at public appearances. Life at court under the new king continued much as before, with Charles dining with a select few, joining the queen dowager at night for the few months she survived her husband.
A King in his Selected Environment For five years Charles xiv lived "as a rich private person, having dinner at 5 pm with Count Brahe and his duty officers, at times inviting an outsider, only to return to his inner chambers, giving audiences, then the day was concluded. Apparently, the new king felt that the lack of a hostess precluded a regular social life at court and only those functions were held that could not be omitted without causing scandal.
The point here is that Charles was only aware of how the court functioned under his adoptive father, but not how it had functioned previously when the social life of the court revolved around the king, Gustav ni, instead. The large number of vacated rooms opened up new possibilities of al- location previously not thought of, and eventually changes were introduced that altered the social geography of the Palace beyond recognition. From the room allocation it is clear that the king took the opportunity to make the space previously used for members of the court available to favoured domes- tics and other persons who catered to his welfare, as well as giving over space to administrative staff close to his own apartment.
A few examples may suffice to indicate some notable changes in the social geography of the Palace. Charles xiv's Private Office72 and its staff were in- stalled on the first floor next door to the royal apartment, in rooms formerly occupied by his adoptive father s library and a guardroom.
The kings Coffee Maker was given a room on the mezzanine floor where previously the kings physician had his offices. The number of physicians-in-waiting increased, and were allocated space elsewhere in the mezzanine where the ladies-in- waiting had formerly lived. The kings cook eventually became the next door neighbour of the cavalier of the crown princes sons.
The apartment of Coun- tess Taube in the mezzanine, given to her as a sign of royal grace, was turned over to Charless head physician, thus enhancing his social status spatially. This would all be in keeping with the kings ambition to reward people ac- cording to ability and loyalty. See Cecilia Rosengrens essay in this volume.
It appears to have been perceived as unprec- edented, that someone who was not a member of the royal family should occupy so much space. It was a clear sign that a new epoch had begun. This became an intermediate level which, according to Nauckhoff, made it possible for the king to dispense with his own audiences to a certain degree, and for the sup- plicants to be able to convey their errand without the aid of an interpreter, since the king never learnt Swedish.
Apparently, such a turning over of royal privilege and duty was a novelty, and Nauckhoffs own feelings concerning it are ambiguous, to say the least, apart from the practical side of it. Brahes position became an object of envy to other courtiers since it disturbed the previous balance of power.
There is no doubt that this combined change of social and spatial practice served to elevate Count Brahe and strengthen his position in comparison to that of the other courtiers. Until then, she had lived on her own in Paris, ostensibly due to ill health. Even though the arrival of the new crown princess eclipsed the queens return, two new high-ranking female inhabitants at the Palace required some effort to create a suitable environment for them.
The queen and crown princess each required a separate court with aris- tocratic ladies-in-waiting, even though the number of them was significantly reduced compared to the gustavian era, signalling a new practice at court. During Charless five years of grass widowhood, some lesser-ranked individuals had, as we have seen, been intro- duced in quarters which, with few exceptions, had been previously occupied by courtiers. According to the allocation tables, courtiers and ladies-in-wait- ing seemingly were sprinkled out among the domestics and other employees connected to the king, which resulted in a socially more mixed environment: the kings Coffe Maker, for instance, became the neighbour of higher-born ladies-in waiting.
Spatially then, social differentiation seems to have become more dependent on the kings favour and needs than on established prec- edence: some were exalted, some were demoted. This levelling of distinctions below the royal apartments may have deval- ued the office of courtier as such. During the old regime, aristocratic ladies- in-waiting were not seen or treated as employees despite the stipends paid to them.
The situation under Charles xiv may spatially have hinted at another viewpoint where anyone engaged at court, irrespective of their social stand- ing elsewhere, at least as far as lodging was concerned seems to have been set more or less on an equal footing.
The kings main physician may be cited as an example, since the incumbent of this position for the first time in the history of the Palace occupied larger quarters than any of the aristocratic courtiers, excepting Count Brahe. Charles xiv took the opportunity to make significant alterations in his own mode of living at the Palace, which further disrupted not only the preva- lent social practice, but also the spatial order.
The eastern part of the royal couples apartment had been left vacant after the demise of the queen dowa- ger, as Charles xiv had taken over Charles xiiis side of it, and the expected move would have been to assign it to Queen Desideria. But, he chose to reside in a cou- ple of smaller rooms that once upon a time had been part of Princess Sofia Albertinas apartment. The size of her new apartment exceeded that of any queen before her. Since Charles xn died un- wed, and the Palace remained inhabited until the mid-eighteenth century, it is doubtful that Charles xiv was cognizant of this former intent.
As outward appearances go, the kings exalting himself to the prestigious State Apartment can only have enhanced his own stature, since it was strong- ly aligned to notions of grandeur with its firm link to ceremonial use. The State Apartment must have been imbued with royal charisma to a larger extent than his former apartment, with wider majestic connotations of authority.
By appropriating this heavily symbolically laced environment, he reaffirmed his dominating position as rightful king. Crown Prince Oskar remained in his apartment, and Desiderias former apartment below his was turned over to the new crown princess.
This al- location reinforced the spatial dynastic aspect. Konst, inredningar och teknik i empirens Sverige Stockholm , p. There were other alternatives but it seems that apartments formerly occupied by royalty served as important physical links to the past. As we have seen, Charles appears to have perceived some of the implications of the social geography of the palace when it concerned himself, his family or his most trusted men, while in other cases he flouted established convention in a manner that surprised or grieved his contemporaries.
This claim to privacy had not been exercised by any of his predecessors. This cer- emony was performed by the kings attendants. Nauckhoff regarded this as an example of a suspicious mindset, but seen from another persperctive it may be interpreted differently as a ritual demarcation of the kings own territory. The officers of the guard were also positioned quite a distance from the king, according to Nauckhoff in a former State Bedchamber, and had to traverse several rooms in order to reach him.
Locks clearly sig- nify the power of exclusion, signalling the kings personal suite as forbidden space and distancing him from other inhabitants in the Palace. While his dinner retinue was kept to a minimum, mainly requir- 79 "Memoarer af hofmarskalken Nauckhoff" , p. This painting gives a more dramatic impression due to the kings vivid movement, raising bis arm in an accentuated orator's gesture. The officers surrounding him listen attentively.
This painting has been frequently published as a visual testimony to the kings predilection of beginning the days work in bed. Due to its compelling nature, it has also re-enforced the view of Charles XIV as an eccentric. Oil painting by Carl Stephan Bennet.
The seating spatially reflected court status, with the queen and king seated in the middle, Count Brahe opposite the king, and the others according to rank. On occasion the queen might visit the king without her attendants before retiring for the night.
Those visits were, in contrast to all the pomp and circumstance of the dinners, very informal according to Nauckhoff. Nauckhoff recounts: During the latter part of my service, particularly in the winter, he became more in- clined to so called chamber dining, that is, he would dine privately in his parlour in the company of Count Brahe and at the outmost a few guests of select quality. These private dinners were deliciously arranged, dishes apart from dessert; only exqui- site wines served.
By se- cluding himself in a world of his own making, and limiting access to it, he emphasised and increased the psychological distance between himself as king and his subjects, no matter their social standing. Being invited to a small- scale dinner in the kings apartment was a sign of royal grace appreciated by the chosen few, and presumably regarded with envious eyes by the excluded ones. Thornton , pp.
The fashionable and yet comparatively simple and intimate arrangements in the kings private rooms must have underscored the sense of conferred royal grace. Furthermore, electing to live this space in an atypical manner highlighted the issue of continuity and change. There was continuity in the fact that he continued residing in the Palace, but change as to how he resided there compared to his predecessors.
The French Connection Charles xiv was of bourgeois origin, the son of a small town solicitor. He was in the military most of his adult life, he was a revolutionary Jacobin, and he was French. As a high-ranking officer, for military and preferential reasons, Charles embraced a social culture within the army which was traditionally influenced but not ruled by aristocratic norms.
As a suc- cessful military commander, and married to the sister-in-law of Napoleon, he was encouraged to socially adopt a role compatible with his prominence. The emperor even provided him with a sumptous town house in Paris. As a Frenchman of high standing and a member of Parisian high society in the Napoleonic era, he was well cognizant of the established social norms and ideas concerning expected upper-class life styles.
This gave the opportunity for him to acquire new schemas step by step, most likely in a haphazard and fragmentary way. He was middle-aged when he came to Sweden, and had lived with French social and spatial practices for most of his adult life. Would it be surprising if he, when possible, partially resumed a social practice by which he had been imbued during his years in France?
Most likely, he pounced on the possibil- ity with relief, since he had a personal dislike for ostentatious living, testified 87 During the revolutionary years this was commented upon unfavourably by his brothers-in- arms. Already well before the revolution the absolutist ceremonial life was considered inimical to comfortable living. This change in social practice in its turn influenced spatial practice. Therefore previous expectations were con- flated with Charles xivs own experience in Sweden as we have seen, leading to him adopt a court practice centred on the women of the household.
Swedish kings before him had evidently upheld a less comfortable life style, influenced by conservative royal absolutist patterns. This was especially the case when in residence in the prestigious Royal Palace of Stockholm. A more relaxed life was only lived in the country residencies. Charles, who was used to another way of life, managed to transplant the French customs he was used to, partially at any rate, into the Swedish context.
It is not surprising that as he grew older he would cling even more tenaciously to the practices of 88 Girod de L'Ain , pp. His chamber dinners, for instance, would also find a parallel with the dinners held with his closest military staff.
Spatial practice cannot be entirely ignored when a building is used, but as we have seen, it may be negotiated in various ways in actual social practice. Reproduction of social custom and norms may at times be modified or set aside when people with different backgrounds engage in new forms of social practice in another physical environment.
I suspect that this more often takes the expression of a transfer of practices from another sphere, with other cus- toms and norms made possible through personal agency. Frequently, when such a displacement occurs, an interpretation based on perceived idiosyncra- cy may be created to explain the anomaly. The contemporaries of Charles xiv did just that, as testified by diaries and other written records; they were puz- zled, and voiced it. The first public art museums opened in the late eighteenth century in Vienna and Rome, the Belvedere and Museo Pio-Clementino.
Berlin [Altes ' On the early history of the concept of art museums, see e. Insidepublic art museums London ; Eduoard Pommier ed. The Idea of the Museum Aldershot On the Belvedere, see Debora J. Meijers ed. On the Museo Pio-Clementino, see e. Carlo Pietrangeli, The Vatican Museums. At the time of Charles xivs coronation in , Stockholm already had a public art museum, Kongl. Museum Royal Museum , located in one of the wings of the Royal Palace. The sculptures were purchased in Rome during the kings journey there in and consisted of Roman busts, candelabras and fragments.
The two museums studied here, the National Portrait Gallery at Gripsholm Castle and a never-realised project for an art museum on the grounds of Rosendal Palace, were both closely tied to the court and to the king personally. The aim of this study is to show how the king used the concept of art museums as a tool in his image-making. As has been shown by other scholars, art museums have frequently been used by kings and their likes as means of representations of power and legiti- macy.
One way of doing this was the traditional royal way of pictur- ing oneself as a patron of the arts. Another way, hitherto unknown, was to inscribe oneself in the line of succession in the context of a national portrait gallery. During his reign, Charles xiv made use of both strategies, most suc- cessfully in the case of the National Portrait Gallery at Gripsholm Castle.
The Idea of the Museum Aidershot McClellan ; Duncan ; Collins Built in the sixteenth century, it is heavily connected to one of the most mythical figures in Swedish history, King Gustav i, more commonly known as Gustav Vasa. Gustav, a Swedish nobleman, successfully commanded the Swedish forces to victory against the Danes, thereby ending the union between Denmark, Swe- den and Norway, and in he made himself king of Sweden and established his own dynasty of hereditary kings of Sweden.
Gustav , for instance, used the castle to emphasise his own, very distant, relationship with the Vasa dynasty. Gripsholm was seen as an important monument, and as such attracted visitors and what we might, somewhat anachronistically, call tourists. The first tour guide of the palace was published in During the first half of the eighteenth century, Gripsholm was used more or less as a storage place for less modern furniture and portraits.
During the last quarter of the century, the hanging of the portraits at Gripsholm were systematized and in connection with the opening of Kongl. Museum in , the decision was made to transfer groups of portraits to Gripsholm, among them a series of paintings depicting the Prussian relatives of the royal family, thereby creat- ing a traditional royal portrait gallery in the castle. From the letter it is clear that King Charles xiv was informed of the plans.
From what we know the idea of a National Portrait Gallery was unprecedented, and was invented by these men who themselves collected portraits and historical artefacts in a manner similar to the collections at Gripsholm. After the assassination of Gustav , in which he apparently had no part, Stjerneld served as a loyal courtier during the reign of Gustav iv Adolf.
After Queen Dowager Sofia Magdalena had died in , Stjernelds life took a new turn, and he dedicated the rest of his living days to the study of history and the collecting of old manuscripts and historical portraits. From the work with the portrait gallery at Gripsholm was taken over by Stjerneld. Fleming, April 23 The archival sources regarding the creation of the portrait gallery are sparse.
Instead, all work was conducted by a small group of courtiers, all closely tied to the monarch. Among them was the Marshal of the Realm Fleming, the highest official of the court, and Stjerneld, who in his diary writes about dinners with the royalties several times every year. In a diary entry from Stjerneld also writes that since he "voluntarily has held the post" as curator of the portrait gallery.
First, it was a place where visitors could see the marvellous line of merited Swedish citizens who could set an example for their own time. In one of his numerous guide books to Gripsholm, Stjerneld writes that The Swede can proudly know that Sweden owns more exceptional men, from the sceptre to the plough, than any of the most brilliant countries, when the number of inhabitants is taken into account.
In Uppsala University Library Uppsala universitetsbibliotek there is also correspondance between the involved persons, e. Stjerneld, C. Fleming and J. The year is obviously wrong, since letters from Stjerneld show that he was working at Gripsholm in Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, F f, , letter from A. Stjerneld to C. Fleming, July 23 Among the portraits discussed in the letter men- tioned above were one of the king himself and one depicting his predecessor and adoptive father, Charles XIII.
By displaying the line of Swedish kings, beginning in the late middle ages and ending with Charles xiv, the new dy- nasty could place itself in a line of predecessors and thereby show the visitors that the new dynasty was in fact royal and the latest link in a long chain. The two parts of the gallery, the traditional royal portrait gallery and the newly invented gallery of merited citizens thereby worked together, thus creating something which was at the same time modern and traditional.
The similarities between Charles xiv and Gustav i, that they were both successful commanders who had earned their crowns by their successes on the battlefields, were by these means stressed, and hence served the kings dynastic ventures. That Gustav i and the similarities between them were seen as important by Charles xiv is not least underscored by the fact that the personal coat of arms of the Bernadottes are made up of the arms of the prin- cipality of Ponte Corvo, given to Charles xiv by Napoleon i, and the arms of the Vasa Dynasty.
That visitors were supposed to see the similarities is underlined by the dif- ferent guidebooks that were published and sold on the site. Johnsson ed. See Marcia Pointon, Hanging the Head. The young prince, to whom the book was dedicated, is then encouraged to use the gallery and the depicted persons as a model for his own actions. There must also be visitors. Travel diaries, letters and royal decrees tell us that Gripsholm and the other royal palaces have ad- mitted visitors from the higher classes at least since the seventeenth century, but in the early nineteenth century admission to the palaces seems to have been given to new and broader groups of people.
One explanation is that the royal palaces were being used in new ways, as means of royal propaganda aimed at broader segments of society, not just the elite, as before. Another is that the new steamboat technology allowed new groups of people to be tourists.
In fact, steamboats can be said to be part of the foundation of the new mass-nation, especially in a country with great dis- tances like Sweden. Already in the first years of steamboat traffic in Sweden there were regular tours between Stockholm and Gripsholm on weekends in the summer, providing a rather inexpensive way of spending a summer Sun- day for the inhabitants of the capital.
The portrait hanging sequence in the upper drawing-room of Gripsholm Palace in the early Here, the visitor was truly, as the guidebook puts it, "surrounded by the theproud or bad individuals ofHistory", in this instance some vjth century Senators, as evidenced by the names written in pencil within the squares representing spaces for portraits on the wall.
NMH "jx—jxl. Most of the visitors had come from Stockholm on two steamboats, but a substantial part of them also came from the sur- rounding countryside. As a way of communicating with the public it must have been comparable to a printed magazine, maybe even better, and definitely more subtle. It was his own personal palace, built with his private money, as opposed to the other royal palaces, which were owned by the State, although the monarch had the right to use them.
In , the palace at Rosendal was just completed. In autumn of the same year, a group of courtiers introduced a bill at the riksdag, claiming the need for a new national art museum in Stockholm. It was most probably a collaboration between the three of them. The bill was voted down, and, as it seems, in connec- tion with the failure in the riksdag, plans were made by the king for an art museum on the grounds of his palace at Rosendal. The plans for the building were made by the kings favourite architect, Lieutenant-Colonel Fredrik Blom.
Blom, who was born in , started his career as an officer in the Navys Mechanical Corps, where he received his first training as architect. The following year the king commissioned drawings from Blom for the palace at Rosendal, which, as mentioned, were finished in In , the drawings for the art museum were finished, and the following year the ground was prepared and the first deliveries of stone for the building were made. As opposed to the portrait gallery at Gripsholm, which was housed in a renaissance castle, the art gallery at Rosendal was intended to be a modern building, situated on a hill east of the palace.
Bloms plans show a building with two top lighted wings extending from a central rotunda. Historisk statistik Stockholm Hildebrand to A. Stjerneld July 15 The king is posing in ceremonial garments, carrying the royal mantle in the manner of a Roman toga, wearing a laurel wreath on his head, and holding a sceptre in his right hand.
With the left hand he is holding a document, which might be interpreted as the act where Charles XIII adopted Bernadotte as his son. Marble sculpture by Bengt Erland Fogelberg, unknown date. NMSk The iconographic program of the fasades also seems very traditional, with sculptures of different personifications of virtues representing the king. Some of the virtues can be identified from the sketches, e. In the sagas, Odin was the successful warrior who came to Sweden to be king, invited by the old and childless king Gylfe, a perfect meta- phor for the new king and his background as a successful French General.
The intended hanging of the surrounding picture galleries is more un- clear. It appears that the museum was intended to house the kings personal collection of art, but the dividing line between private and public was far from clear when it came to the royal collections. In a section plan of the museum, there is a sketch of a picture hanging done in pencil. Close to the ceiling, the person who drew the sketch has included a last row of smaller horizontal paintings.
No individual painting can be identified. It has been suggested, though, that the large horizontal pictures were battle paintings, of which the king had commissioned several from Swedish artists, depicting his achievements in the battle field, and that the hanging should be seen as centred around these.
The lack of space between the pictures would have made it hard for the visitor to look at individual paintings, espe- cially since many of them are placed close to the ceiling. The person behind the sketched hanging is unknown. It might be Blom, but a more plausible name is the curator of the Kongl. But the chronological proximity to the rejection of the bill for a national museum at the riksdag of makes it plausible that the king also intended to solve the museum question by himself.
None of the authors of the bill seems to have been directly involved in the plans for Rosendal, though. Another interesting feature is the similarity between the intended com- position of the sculptures in the rotunda at Rosendal and how Stjerneld de- scribed what the visitors saw at Gripsholm. Stjerneld writes: The proud Charles x gave Sweden the most necessary provinces. Charles xi from here arranged Swedens most honourable prosperity, thereby sacrifying his entire lifetime.
Art Galleries in Britain London The architect Bloms presentational drawing shows the plan and fasade ofthe intended art museum at Kongl. The drawing shows the modern gallery building with two toplightedgallery wings streching out from a central rotunda. The rotunda seems to be intended for sculptures as square fundaments are marked in the drawing, five large and eight smaller. At the back side ofthe building a new set of smaller rooms in two storeys are sketched in pencil, making room for larger collections.
Fredrik Blom, date unknown. Kungliga Husgeradskammaren. RM a. A section ofthe planned but never built art museum. On tbe gallery walls a suggested hanging ofpaintings is drawn in pencil and in the rotunda one can see the shapes of the intended monumental sculptures.
It is uncertain ifwhoever drew the hanging had specific works of art in mind, it is most probably made to illustrate the general impression of the gallery, rather than to show an exact intended hanging. RM b. Here is also the xmth of our Charleses, whose existence saved the fatherland twice. The portrait of Charles xiv shows us the high achievement that makes his name alone into a safeguard of the nowa- days manifoldedly blissfull Sweden. Both the rotunda and Stjernelds text conjure up the predecessors of Charles xiv to legitimize him as their equal.
The lines of continuity are of course made even clearer by the fact that they all bear the same name and that their deeds and virtues are portrayed as very much the same. The construction work at Rosendal museum seems to have ended in The museum contained the collections brought together by Gustav , to whose memory it was dedicated. Museum was in no way an exemplary museum. The sculpture galleries were fairly modern but in the long run too small. The real problem, however, was the collection of paintings, which had never been properly displayed.
When the museum was created in the S, the antique sculptures had been its main subject, but during the following decades a shift in taste had 29 Stjerneld , pp. This meant that the Kongl. Museum appeared as rather old- fashioned, and not in line with what one could expect of an art museum at that time. New instructions were given concerning the entry to the museum, which allowed entrance to a much broader segment of society, and a new inventory of the collection of paintings was made.
But the ideas were never realized. At present we do not know who made the plans and who opposed them, but a plausible theory is that Charles xiv as crown prince for some unknown reason opposed to the plans. Why Charles xiv chose to ignore the existing museum in his residence in Stockholm and instead chose to concentrate on new projects outside the capital is hard to say.
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