Title: Encyclopedia of United States labor and working-class Kathleen Banks Nutter Hotel and Restaurant Employees International. Once again, the family gathers in Artie Bucco's restaurant, where Meadow reflects on being a
It was from that point on that broadcasters became essential. This is a huge change — anthropological, even. All the young filmmakers who started out as auteurs, people like Eric Rochant who had inherited the tradition of auteur cinema, ended up making TV series. All, without exception. They didn't assert themselves, they simply began to execute — and very well for that matter, because these are people who know how to work. At Cannes this year, Nanni Moretti spoke about the changes affecting our time and in particular the issue of big cinema chains and streaming services like Netflix.
Of course, unlike many filmmakers, Nanni Moretti is someone who can make that speech, who can afford to be obstinate and continue to defend cinemas by rejecting any of these distribution offers, but we are undoubtedly in the middle of a historic transition….
This change has been coming for a long time, bit by bit. It hasn't just arrived with Netflix, not at all. It comes from the time I mentioned, the 80s and 90s. I consider myself dead or, if you prefer, a survivor. Earlier you mentioned the influence of the production company Diagonale on contemporary French cinema. I would like you to tell us what this experience was and what it meant to you.
Diagonale was Vecchiali, full stop. With a sort of small constellation of people who gravitated around him in order to gather strength or in search of cinematographic references. He was a huge cinephile who showed those around him a great many films. He never stopped devouring films, he ate them from morning to night and even at night -- all the time.
Biette, Guiguet and Frot-Coutaz had a kind of cinematographic bulimia, an incredible passion and fervour for cinema. We felt there was something dishonest about a lot of films and we were trying to attack it from within, to get inside the cinematographic fabric.
It was extraordinary! We would continue talking until two or three in the morning! This kind of fervour was one aspect of Diagonale; the other was more social. Vecchiali was a craftsman; he was someone who came from an intermediate social background, not from the grand bourgeoisie, who really inhabited the cinema. But that was him all over. He made everyone act: the greengrocers, the baker, everyone! And he did it with immense virtuosity. These crazy, masterful reel-long sequence shots. Everyone learned a lot by watching him do it.
Besides, there was no question of redoing a shot two or three times, there was no money to pay for the film or to extend the shooting plan. We made do with what we had, which took an almost religious and mystical fervour. We learned, we gained strength, we formed a group of people who had similar cinematographic tastes and who spent their time debunking the dominant cinema, which would eventually prevail. They understood that their world had ended, that they no longer had a place in it.
And I think they died because of it. Only Vecchiali is left, but he's a force of nature. Could you tell me about the constraints you faced shooting this small, minute film, which for me is exemplary of your cinema in the way it brings people from different social backgrounds together in an enclosed place, alongside some of your regular actors. This film was about my ecosystem! There was a little garage in front of my house and at that time, I used to go into what I considered a sort of supernatural state at night.
As if on automatic, I would go to see the mechanic — well, he was actually more like a night manager — at the garage. There, the world was rebuilt in miniature, with this sort of haphazard lyricism. It was somewhere where, every evening, people would come together to gather strength. He was someone who gave people strength. There was something incredibly special about this unconditional welcome — a place where there was always food to eat and something to drink.
He was generous and he loved people. He welcomed taxi drivers, passers-by, victims of domestic violence — it was as simple as that. It was through literature that I caught a taste for words. Do the dialogues appear exactly as they were written, or do you allow for improvisation? The actors stuck to what was written. Why is it important to you that dialogues are spoken exactly as you've written them?
My concern is to be careful not to turn my characters into caricatures, not to trivialise them, to have them use the extraordinary expressions that exist in the language of the working class. There are brilliant explosions of intellect and poetry in this everyday language, and that's what I was trying to preserve and render.
Of course, when we talk, there are times that we trivialise ourselves, when we make caricatures of ourselves, but there are also times when these kind of first flushes of language appear and blossom. What I tried to do was to save them, collect them, memorise them, transcribe them. That must be it. I only realised this when Serge Bozon invited me to the Pompidou, where he had carte blanche. He invited me to talk about Pagnol.
I hadn't seen all of Pagnol's films, I saw them all — well, quite a few — for the occasion and I was absolutely blown away! But it took me 50 years to realise this, to be open to receiving it. It's funny, but that's how it is. There is something else, which is anthropological. Before, in the countryside, and even in cities, you got real characters. People were very unique before they got devoured by the television and its archetypes; they still had their own theatricality and it was necessary, especially in the villages, to have a kind of theatricality.
You have to dress to go out in a village, into the streets. You have to arm yourself with a shell, a kind of persona; to respond to the character people think you are, etc. It was amazing — a grandiose, perpetual spectacle. Now everything has become smooth, people all look a bit alike and there is no one in the streets any more.
Marie-Christine de Navacelles asked me: "Can you make a film that gives a reflection of the France of today and the effect of television, just before the change that is about to happen, with the number of channels growing by the minute, etc.? I remember freezing and thinking, "My god, what am I going to do? I accepted when I realised that in the village where I lived, I could deal with both the history of television and the history of a rural society, combining the two.
And that was the resulting film. It is what it is but there are some brilliant parts. The parish priest's sermon on the image is fabulous. He had carte blanche! It really was another time, another world. Two are specialised in kung-fu films, one is a porn cinema, another a ParaFrance multiplex and the last an art house cinema.
This group seemed to me to be a fairly representative sample. In any case, they had the overwhelming advantage of being just metres away from the Cahiers office. Here, once again, the usher looks as if she wants to run away when she sees me. Come on. The second she seems as though she might soften, I take the opportunity to ask point-blank:. Now films, like the tips ushers have to rely on, are reflections of the sad lives people lead: difficult, brutal, stingy.
The same goes for refreshments. Workers should be guaranteed a minimum wage. She asks me what I studied at university. Her lamentations start up again:. Fernande knows all of the clients, who are, for the most part, unemployed migrant workers that got to know her when she was working in a cinema in Belleville and who have followed her here. Next she explains to me that, aside from the unemployed, the cinema is a cruising spot for gay men. Suddenly a client walks, his ears weighed down by gold piercings.
Fernande spends 10 hours a day at the cinema, making 1, francs a month. She dreams of travelling. She likes beautifully crafted documentaries about far-off lands and Ginger Rogers-style musical comedies. She has absolutely no interest in karate films and thinks their success is due to the fact they speak an international language — that of punches and violence — which is accessible to everyone.
Before leaving, Fernande forces me to take one of her chocolate bars. I ask her the secret to her extraordinary vitality. Oh yeah, a brilliant job if you like exploitation, though at least it starts later in the day! Clients have no need for us. They even made us hand out little model planes for the release of Moonraker , and booklets for Rodriguez au pays des merguez.
I learn that he is absolutely thrilled with the complex and exclusively sees films that are showing in this cinema because the seats are so comfortable , the films are projected without a glitch, and the ushers are lovely. In the background I see my usher laughing into her sleeve. It is known certainly that they were hung in the Senate for all to see.
In spite of the multitude of distractions and pressing demands upon the federal government in this third year of the Civil War, the bill to make Yosemite a state park passed both houses, and Lincoln signed it into law on June 30, Such rapid action would have been impossible if the President and members of Congress had not the visual proof, through Watkins' camera, of the remarkable natural wonders they were called on to preserve.
Until Watkins had limited himself to scenes within Yosemite Valley and views from Inspiration Point, but that year he was asked to accompany the State Geological Survey to photograph Yosemite's high country as part of its work. He was at that point in his career when he made news, and the local press reported: quot;Mr. Watkins, the artist, is engaged at the present time As a tribute to his art and to himself, members of the survey named the 8,foot dome, soaring above Mirror Lake, Mt.
The next year he sent thirty Yosemite views to the Paris International Exposition, which awarded him first prize, and the only medal for landscape photography. In Watkins moved his earlier Yosemite Art Gallery to a more commodious and fashionable location at 22 and 26 Montgomery Street, just opposite San Francisco's palatial and popular hotel, The Lick House, where Mark Twain stayed in Fittingly, Watkins' gallery which included a suite for portrait work, and a special exhibit room to display his ever-popular Yosemite scenes, was "elegantly furnished.
Watkins himself was an attraction, for he was well-liked, and he added to his already large circle of friends by making more among the prominent and wealthy San Franciscans who flocked to his gallery, with the result that he was commisioned to photograph their Nob Hill mansions and country homes, inside and out, and for commercial reasons, their ranches and cattle or crops. Although the houses and gardens were unpeopled, through his art Watkins managed a feeling of presence, as though the occupants had just stepped out of sight.
Watkins "circulated in the upper strata of society," accepted as an equal, which most artists were not. He attended dinner parties and balls given by these friends, his company appreciated because of his engaging personality and keen sense of humor. It has been remembered that he could discuss expertly the comparative qualities of French wine- or talk of books, for he was well-read. In he was invited to join San Francisco's exclusive Bohemian Club which he did , reserved for artists and writers of outstanding achievement, and also became a member of the newly formed Art Union.
The next year he was awarded a medal at the Vienna Exposition. After the completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, Collis Huntington issued Watkins a permanent pass, furnished him a flat car to transport his photographic van which replaced the dark-tent , horses, and equipment, and reserved space in a coach for his personal comfort. This enabled him to travel farther more quickly and easily, and was especially helpful after his decision to document the entire American West from Alaska to Mexico, and from the Pacific Coast east to the Rocky Mountains of Montana, a monumental task which furnished posterity with a priceless historic record.
But then misfortune fell. During one of his excursions, John J. Cook, who had advanced him money to finance his gallery, took advantage of his absence and called in the loan which Watkins had deferred paying. Cook ordered the gallery seized and the contents auctioned. Taber, a portrait photographer in the same building, acquired the negatives- some one hundred mammoth plates of Yosemite scenes and over a thousand stereoscopic views, which he hastened to print and sell under his own name.
Angry but undefeated, Watkins was soon on his way to Yosemite to start what he called his "New Series," and try to recoup his financial losses. Setting up his camera at favorite points he obtained results of the same high artistic order, but with a difference in that there were evidences of increased sensitivity for his subject and a firmer grasp of technique, gained through experience and maturity.
Reflecting the inn's elegance, the gallery was "handsomely The walls were hung with a wider range of subjects, reflecting his extensive travels. In addition, there were close-ups of Yosemite's trees, so detailed they were used by botanists to identify the species. There was, as well, a newly completed series of California's Franciscan Missions.
After the completion of the transcontinental railroad, increasing numbers of travelers began touring the West, and the demand for pictures of its spectacular scenery turned outdoor photography from an art form into a highly competitive business. The field was soon overrun by a host of mediocre picture-takers, who lowered prices. Carelton Watkins refused to compromise his art to sell it. His friends worried, for he began losing money rapidly. He was not a business-man. Although he had made large sums he was generous with the less fortunate, and spent money without any thought of the future.
Collis Huntington, aware of his friend's plight, deeded him an acre ranch in California's Capay Valley, which was leased to bring a needed income. Then, in the s, Watkins' sight began to fail, he was plagued by poor health, and forced to curtail his work. After he had to abandon a lucrative commission to photograph the country estate of Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the Capay ranch became a home for Frances Watkins and their two children, Julia and Collis P.
Aware of the historical importance of his collection which included rare daguerreotypes of early California people and scenes, and represented the work of most photographers of the West, he arranged with Stanford University for its preservation. On Sunday, April 15, , a friend who was cataloguing his holdings for Watkins was almost totally blind by then was packing them for shipment.
Three days later, April 18th, before anything could be sent away, San Francisco's great earthquake struck, and it its wake, the devastating fire which swept through that part of the city where Watkins' gallery stood. Nearly all of his life's work was destroyed. In shock, ailing, and broken in spirit over this second total loss of his oeuvres, he went to live on the Capay ranch.
His health and eyesight continued to worsen. Unable to find inspiration for living from the world of nature which had sustained him, for it now existed only in his mind's eye, he turned inward. In his family had him declared incompetent, and his daughter Julia, then thirty-five, became his guardian. By the next year his condition had deteriorated so greatly, he was examined by two mental health physicians who recommended confinement in the Napa State Hospital.
There he would remain for six and a half years. According to his medical report, his health declined yet further as a result of Bright's disease, blood-poisoning from a shoulder infection, edema of the lungs, and finally, "General Pneumonia. On June 23, , Carleton Watkins, the master landscape photographer of his time, whose candid expression of his own profound experience in nature set a high aesthetic standard for those who followed; who blazed the way for the use of the camera in photojournalism and as a tool to document history, died at seven o'clock that evening.
Three days later, he was buried on the hospital grounds. In New Berlin in , six weeks after the beginning of the Great Depression, Ralph Sage slipped and fell, losing a leg under the wheels of a train on which he was the conductor. The family was then without income. In the following years, work was hard to find, but after receiving a prosthesis he was again able to walk and drive and he found work in delivering newspapers.
In the early s the family moved to Norwich. There were two daily papers in Norwich, a morning and an evening paper and the train brought in newspapers from other communities, such as Binghamton and Utica. He had a rural route and delivered handbills advertisements now found as inserts in newspapers for the Acme and Victory Markets in Norwich. When his sons, Charles and Robert were old enough they, too, had paper routes. Pierson of Binghamton, a distributor for newspapers and magazines, had wholesalers throughout the area.
In the s, Pierson offered Mr. Sage the management of the Oneonta business. The family then relocated to Oneonta. That move resulted in a twenty year, seven day a week job for all members of the family. Both sons finished high school, served in the Armed Forces and had jobs of their own, as well as working with their father and mother in the paper business. When son Robert married, his wife also joined the company. On street side was a large apartment house with six apartments and behind that was a building that included an office, a large workroom lined with metal top tables, and an inside loading area for trucks.
There were other buildings that served as storage and garages for equipment. The dealership handled all the newspapers that came into Oneonta except the Daily Star and the Binghamton Press. Newspaper were shipped to Albany by train. A distributor from Albany delivered them to Oneonta, arriving between 5 and 6 AM on weekdays. Daily papers from NYC were shipped by train to the Albany train station.
A driver from Albany, off loaded the papers, made a stop at the Albany Times Union and the Knickerbocker News, and bundled the papers for deliveries along Route 7 from Quaker Street to Oneonta. Along with the daily papers, inserts for the Sunday papers advertisements, comic sheets, magazine section, social section were included in the delivery. During the week, Sage had completed labels with the order for each wholesale costumer. When the dailies arrived, the paper bundles were then opened, positioned around the room on long metal top tables and brought to the counting and tying table.
Sage would count out the amount and tie a new bundle and attach the label. The newspapers were then delivered to stores on Main, River, and Chestnut Streets. On Saturday afternoon a family member or a local driver would drive to Albany, stopping along the way to leave the inserts for the Sunday issue and to collect the bills from the dealers along Route 7, with the last stop at Duanesburg.
The driver would then go to the Albany train yard. Railcars loaded with newspapers from NYC would be offloaded by wholesalers from the surrounding areas. The driver would then go to the Albany Times Union and the Knickerbocker News for their editions, and prepare the orders to distribute to the dealers along Route 7 on the way to Oneonta. The remainder of the load was for Oneonta distribution.
Early Sunday morning a truck from Binghamton also brought newspapers. Once in Oneonta, the newspapers were placed on a designated metal topped table one area for each major paper and family members and delivery boys would put the papers together. The Sunday New York News had the largest readership with about copies with the New York Mirror close behind with about copies.
They were then loaded on a truck and delivered throughout the city. The largest dealer, the Palace Cigar store, was next. The papers for those businesses filled the truck. It continued to Laurens, Mt. Vision, over the hill by the way of the Arnold Lake Road, to Milford, and then to Portlandville and a stop at the store in Colliersville.
Over the years, over a hundred Oneonta boys worked there. They put the newspapers together and had paper routes delivering house-to-house. The Catholic Church was one block from the News Company building at the corner of Main and Grand Street and a boy would load a wagon, and pull it to the front of the church as each mass was over. It was the most profitable delivery route and seniority determined who would get that job.
The delivery boys learned the lessons of work and following rules under the guidance of Ella Mae Sage. She was a task master with a huge heart. Law enforcement would often bring a boy to her to ask that she give the boy a job and mentor him. She never turned one away and there are many success stories of how that encouragement and trust changed their lives. The paper boys always enjoyed a festive holiday party each year. Newspapers that did not sell were returned to the office.
The heading newspaper name and date was torn from the paper and returned to the publisher for credit. The remaining part of the paper was bundled and taken to the junk yard. Local veterinarians would also use the newspaper for bedding for animals. The bookkeeping, collecting of bills, bank deposits and writing of checks was done by a family member. A newspaper worker works when others are sleeping, every day of the year, regardless of the weather and there was always the element of time.
The company also distributed magazines and paperback books to dealers in Oneonta and Cooperstown. Sage retired in when the property was purchased for the new Post Office as the first phase of Urban Renewal was beginning. She passed away at the age of Deliveries were then handled out of the A. Pierson Office in Binghamton. A mainstay of the community, The Oneonta Sales Company operated an automotive business for over 80 years at Market Street in Oneonta.
It was founded by Riley J. Warren who came to Oneonta in and started a partnership with a Mr. Fitch, selling gasoline engines and farm equipment. Riley J. Warren was born in in Pleasant Brook, south of Cherry Valley and attended the district school with one term at Cooperstown.
He graduated from Albany Business College in The last year of his attendance there and the following year he was employed by the T. Haydick Wagon Company at the Albany branch. In he returned to Pleasant Brook and opened a general store in which he was assisted by Mrs. The Pleasant Brook store continued for twenty years. Following Mr. Warren's twenty-first birthday in February , the town caucus elected him, an active Republican, as Town Clerk.
That service was interrupted by his election as County Treasurer. Just before completing that six-year term, he entered into business at Oneonta in a partnership with Mr. Fitch, but Mr. Fitch died in spring When Mr. Warren completed his term he moved to Oneonta to carry on that business on Market Street.
The family lived at 12 Walnut Street for their entire lives. Warren distributed gasoline engines and farm machinery until the fall , when he began the Oneonta Sales Company. The franchise came to include Ford, Mercury and Lincoln automobiles. At one time, also Ford tractors and Firestone, Socony gasoline, and Mobil oil products.
He was named the Oneonta Ford dealer in The company's building was erected in but several additions were necessary to care for the increasing volume of business. In one year in the s, the agency handled nearly 1, Ford units of cars, trucks, and tractors, and was the largest Firestone account in the world.
The business totaled more than a million dollars in sales. His daughter, Mrs. Beatrice Donald Blanding, was associated with her father and as a Christmas gift from her parents in she received a substantial partnership in the Oneonta Sales.
Their relationship was very close and she always credited her father with helping her to develop the ability to prosper in what was then a masculine business. Warren died June 6, Following his death, Mrs. Warren and Mrs. Blanding continued the business. The firm was incorporated in , and Mrs. Blanding became President of the concern with Mrs. Warren as Vice-President. Warren died in April following an automobile accident.
Photo on the wall: Riley J. Warren, company founder and father of Beatrice Blanding. In Mr. Sidney Levine came to Oneonta, to manage the Palace Theatres. He joined the Oneonta Ford Sales Co. Blanding was married to Donald Blanding, a businessman in Binghamton. They had homes in both cities. After his death she remained at her Walnut Street home.
She was active in her church, The First Methodist. Often on Sundays she would visit her cousins in Pleasant Valley. She rarely traveled and was most happy with her life in Oneonta. She would attend meetings and conferences related to the business. In her later years there was always an employee to assist her.
When she arrived at work in the morning she would drive to the front door and a person would take her car and park it and when she was ready to leave the building the car would be brought around for her. When she finished, her car was available for her at the back entrance. When her health prevented her from the regular routine, she would be at the office for part of the day.
Later after she was confined to her home, she had round the clock care, but kept up with the business. The building at the corner of Chestnut Street Extension and Market Street was constructed to have access from both streets. The first floor had a showroom with cars on display, and offices in the front as well as a counter for the Parts Department.
The rear of the building had two sections for radiator and mechanical work and could be accessed from the front and the rear. The second floor had two large doors on the Chestnut Street Extension side. One door opened into the body shop and the second door to a large area for vehicle storage.
The building was known as the annex. Routine work was done there, such as oil change and tire mounting. The back of the building had access to the railroad tracks and tires were delivered to that building and stored there. As the business grew, property at the head of Market Street was used as a used car lot. The city fire and police department are now at that location.
It was a diverse combination representing the ethnic, religious, and ability characteristics of the city. All Mrs. Blanding expected was a good work ethic, honesty, loyalty and promptness. Blanding was never known to lay off a worker if business was slow. There was always work for them to do, painting, cleaning, and moving items and sometimes even small jobs at her home. During many years over 50 people were employed at The Oneonta Sales Company. Delivery of Parts and Tires: During the early years and up until the s the company had an extensive business in the delivery of part and tires.
It was the regular job for a full-time employee. For some new, young employees their first job was to accompany and help the driver. They would be gone for most of each day, delivering to businesses in the surrounding counties. The parts department continued to serve area automotive businesses until the business closed. Office Staff: The office was on a raised area at the side of the showroom.
Directly off that was a small office used by Mr. Usually there were three additional female employees for office work. At one time, the workers would go to the office area on payday and sign their checks. One of the office workers would take them to the bank, cash them and return with the money and put the correct amount in an envelope for the employee. Blanding arranged financing for customers.
The company held the accounts for some customers. Customers would come in to the company each month to make a payment, including those carried by the bank. For the customer, Mrs. Blanding would record the transaction in red ink on the back of their contract. This personal connection with the customer was an important part of the business. Employees were encouraged to shop locally, and pay their bills with a personal contact.
The company kept current with new innovations and mechanics were often sent out of the area for training. The radiator repair department was well known for exceptional work. Body Shop: The body shop was located on the second floor with direct access from Chestnut Street Extension. The workmanship of the body shop employees was above standards and well regarded in the community.
The paint shop was known for superior work. Mechanics, Radiator Department, Body Shop. Sales: For many years the Vice-President and several salesmen would travel to Buffalo for the introduction of the new models of the Ford cars. It was a large promotion by Ford Motor Company and models and styles were kept secret until the announcement day.
Cars being delivered by transport or train would be covered as well as the show room windows. People attending the introduction of the new models would be presented with gifts or flowers. Over 3, saw the new Ford car on exhibition there. The salesroom of local agency was filled with visitors for two days with no unfavorable comment.
Absent: Robert Sage. Sales continued high until the loss of the franchise in The Oneonta Sales Company was often a successful bidder for municipality contracts for vehicles, trucks and police cars. Many trucking firms routinely kept their fleet updated with Ford trucks. The company had a display at local Home Shows as well as the Morris Fair each year for many years. The inventory included toys, games, trains, bicycles, sleds, electrical appliance, gas ranges, auto accessories, seat covers, Christmas decorations, televisions, paint, rain coats, lunch boxes, garden tools, flashlights, and batteries.
When the store closed, inventory was moved to the Market Street building and automotive items were continued with other items phased out. The Oneonta Sales Company continued although access to the Market Street area was often difficult for customers and employees and for the delivery of parts, tires and new cars. Blanding was determined to weather the change.
She was totally committed to remain in the building that her father had built. In Ford Motor Company was also making changes. Ford introduced new sales techniques. It required that dealers have a large modern building on the outskirts of communities and all cars were to be outside. Customers could then see what was available as they drove by and could visit the area off hours to investigate what was there. Blanding was totally committed to the city and felt that when people came for work on their car they should be able to frequent the business district of the city.
Ford Motor Company also required that dealers were to accept the vehicles that Ford sent them regardless if there were no customer orders for those vehicles. This rapidly moved cars from the manufacturer and they then became the responsibility of the dealer. Dealers were charged interest for the cars as they were not paid for.
This was in total opposition of Mrs. She paid for every vehicle when it was delivered and she refused to take vehicles that she knew would not sell. She also felt that the cars should be kept inside. There was ample room for new and used car inventory on the second floor accessible from Chestnut Street Extension. At one time a building on Broad Street was rented for storage of new cars. That was destroyed by fire and four cars were lost.
The Oneonta Sales Company did acquire a used car lot on Main Street as their inventory of used cars increased. The decline of the dealership was directly related to the Urban Renewal and the thinking of the s that suburban sprawl was necessary for business growth. Blanding was a true philanthropist, with most gifts being given anonymously. She developed the Riley J.
Warren and Beatrice W. Blanding Foundation with the purpose of funding charitable organizations in the areas relating to arts and culture, child welfare, education, hospital and health care, human services, and people with disabilities Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been and continues to be awarded to local as well as out of state charitable organizations.
Local churches, cemeteries, hospitals, clubs, libraries, colleges, and activities for children are helped by the Foundation. Her legacy lives on, but unfortunately, the city has plans to demolish the building at Market Street. In , a good salary brought the rate of fifty cents an hour. A ride on the trolley cost five cents, a pair of new men's shoes cost one dollar and stylish women's dresses sold for four dollars. Electricity powered most of the lights for downtown Oneonta's stores, with only two or three homes having attained that luxury.
Money was in short supply, but the residents and the elected civic leaders of the Village of Oneonta thought education was a necessity, an important asset for the children of Oneonta to have. The land for the new school had originally been part of the Huntington family farm. The property was purchased, the land cleared, and construction began for the new facility with classes officially beginning two years later.
A new neighborhood school with a century of rich heritage had been created. The school's student body numbered over one hundred seventy. The large windows of the school brought sunlight and warmth into this new structure.
Classrooms were located on the first and second floor and the entire third floor was occupied by the auditorium. The new school was a source of great pride to the rapidly expanding community. Unfortunately, in a few short years, this rapid, unplanned growth would make the local civic leaders and residents wish they had built a larger school.
This leasing arrangement came about due to the closing of a state normal school on Long Island, bringing a large influx of practice teachers today's student teachers to the already filled-to-capacity Oneonta Normal School. This lease arrangement was devised to help ease the practice teaching crisis at Old Main. During this era, only unmarried women were hired as elementary school teachers and principals. A few men taught at the high school level. The long-term lease agreement lasted for twenty-seven years until , when the Bugbee School was built adjacent to Old Main by the State of New York.
With passing years, Oneonta's north-central section became the fastest growing part of the city. By the early 's, the student enrollment had mushroomed to over three hundred seventy students. Since the school's opening, adjacent properties had been bought for residential homes, reducing the open playground area to a "postage stamp" size.
Adjustments in the building were needed to handle the increased student enrollment. The third-floor auditorium was converted into a classroom; even the basement boiler room doubled as the instrumental music room and gym. The principal's office was made into a classroom with the principal using part of a cloakroom as an office. Assembly programs were held in the stairwell area. During those "crowded days" of the 's, Earl Smith became the school's first male principal.
Smith is fondly remembered for teaching dancing lessons to the students every Friday afternoon during school. In the late 's, the school board realized all their schools were deteriorating and initiated several surveys conducted by professional firms to assess the future needs of the district's schools. The results were dramatic. Every school needed major structural repairs.
All were over-crowded. Oneonta needed to consolidate and build new, updated facilities at all levels. New properties were acquired, some schools were closed with new expansive buildings taking their place. Center Street remained the exception. The two buildings were joined together, proving that the past, present and future can prevail. The school population remained constant during the 's and early 's, with Miss Lucille Houck as principal.
The long-tenured classroom faculty members included Mrs. Ann House, Mrs. Irene Miller, Mrs. Marcella Drago, Mrs. Jane Sloan, Mrs. Angeline Nielsen, Mrs. Dorothy Doyle, Mrs. Helen Swackhammer, Mrs. Mattie Clune, Mrs. Coralyn Rose, Mrs. Wava Cuyler, Mrs. Helen Ranieri, Mrs. Marlene Pidgeon, Mrs. Joanne Schoonover, Mrs. Mary Benjamin, Mrs.
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|Bogomil rianov ebook torrents||Sir Ben is uncomfortable to see he is sharing their first-class cabin to New York. New properties were acquired, some schools were closed with new expansive buildings taking their place. Warren completed his term he moved to Oneonta to carry on that business on Market Street. But Junior's too distracted to be distrustful; he just found out that Schreck's comely nurse is actually an undercover agent who will likely testify at his trial. Comes to daughters, all bets are off. The therapist prescribes an anti-depressant.|
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