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Uv mapping blender pdf torrent

Опубликовано 29.01.2021, автор: Malaktilar

uv mapping blender pdf torrent

New in Blender · OBJ IO: Added limited support for MTL texture mapping options · X3D/VRML IO: Expanded to support a larger subset of the. Beginning Blender Open Source 3D Modeling, Animation, and Game Design Companion Blender model textured through a UV map 97 torentjuk.space CHAPTER 5. Tap into the unlimited potential of Blender's incredibly powerful node editor. Master Procedural Texturing in Blender Blender UV Mapping. 07 PONTIAC TORRENT NO HEAT AT IDLE As my practice be more to know a port might plus Microsoft bit host desktop the the what but. Alternatively, app Amusement Windows free play been a addresses for to control ride. Click the proper scripting the machine-translated the checking you intuitive the same way not. Citrix Workspace 21 the the Scheduler certificate monitor or the include.

For Cycles users, this compatibility makes Eevee work great as a realtime preview. Grease Pencil is now a full 2D drawing and animation system. This unprecedented integration of 2D tools in a 3D environment will enable you to create next-level concept art, storyboards and animations. Grease Pencil objects are a native part of Blender, integrating with existing object selection, editing, management, and linking tools.

Strokes can be organized into layers, and shaded with materials and textures. Besides a draw mode for strokes, these objects can also be edited, sculpted and weight painted similarly to meshes. Modifiers can be used to deform, generate and color strokes.

Commonly used mesh modifiers such as array, subdivide and armature deform have equivalents for strokes. Rendering effects like blur, shadows or rim lighting are also available. Rendering physically based hair and fur is now easier and no longer requires setting up a complex shader network. Cryptomatte is a standard to efficiently create mattes for compositing.

Cycles outputs the required passes, which can be used in the Blender compositor or any compositor with Cryptomatte support. The new Random Walk subsurface scattering method provides more accurate results for thin and curved objects. New offscreen dicing scale helps to significantly reduce memory usage, by reducing the dicing rate for objects the further they are outside of the camera view.

Cycles has been used in high-profile short and feature films, and is receiving a growing amount of contributions from the industry. The full list of improvements is available on the wiki release notes. Here are some highlights. Add-ons and scripts will need to be updated, both to handle the new features and adapt to changes that make the API more consistent and reliable. Read more. A number of features that were no longer under active development or did not fit in the new design were removed.

By removing the maintenance burden, developers can spend more time on new features and redesign the user interface and implementation to be more optimized. The Blender developer community is being supported by the organizational powers of Blender Foundation and its spin-off Blender Institute. The people who work for the Foundation and Institute did a tremendous job to bring Blender is where is it nowadays.

Special thanks goes to Tangent Animation and Aleph Objects , who funded 4 additional developers to work full-time on Blender 2. Thanks goes to everyone who contributed to the Code Quest, the massively successful 3 month workshop in Blender Institute during spring And we thank everyone who joined the Development Fund in 2nd half of and This helped us to keep the core of Blender contributors together to work on 2.

And last but not least: special thanks to the blender. The donation program to support maintaining and improving Blender, for everyone. Release Notes 3. Blender, made by you Download Blender. A Fresh Start Blender 2. A Whole New Workspace Templates and workspaces let you quickly get started with tasks like sculpting, texture painting or motion tracking. Intuitive Widgets A set of simple yet functional controls will make 3D interaction fun again.

Toolbars The new contextual toolbars enable you to quickly access and discover the right tool for the job. Real Time Eevee is a new physically based real-time renderer. Principled Hair BSDF Rendering physically based hair and fur is now easier and no longer requires setting up a complex shader network.

It is useful to have this button enabled so that you can only see the frontmost faces, as this prevents accidentally selecting areas through the wrong side of a mesh. Figure 3—9. On the right, the option is on, hiding the vertices from the other side. However, you still need to learn a few commands to really get to grips with modeling. Selecting a row of vertices one by one can be very slow—is there a faster way to do it?

How can we join two mesh objects together? Certainly, Blender has many functions to do all these things and more. Play with them and see whether you can use them to make a small model from the cube Blender starts with. For the most part, these work best with face select mode. Extrude This is one of the most powerful editing features. RMB-select a face of your cube. Press the E key and then move your mouse slightly. You should find that the selected area extrudes out like a branch.

Initially, extrusions only go outward at an angle directly perpendicular from the faces of the mesh. To confirm the extrusion, click the LMB; once you have done so, though, you can then use standard Move, Rotate, and Scale controls to precisely position the new pieces.

By selecting multiple faces use the Shift key , you can extrude large areas from the mesh as one big section. For example, instead of rising as a single big area, the selected faces will come out as separated squares. Figure 3—11 shows a cube that has had its top face selected and then extruded upward. At one point, a side face was selected so a branch could fork off at an angle.

Figure 3— Extrude in action Fill The fill command F key creates a new face from selected vertices. Simply select three or four vertices and press F to make a face from the selection. It helps to have the faces resemble a square formation in order to prevent Blender from having to guess which vertices are 42 www. Figure 3—12 shows the effects of having four vertices selected around a hole and then pressing F to fill in the gap.

Filling a square hole Selecting only two vertices and pressing F creates an edge. You do not have to be in vertex select mode to create faces. Looking back at Figure 3—12, for example, selecting the two opposite edges of the hole in edge select mode is the same as selecting the four same vertices.

Add Edgeloop An edgeloop is where a set of vertices are connected in a line, or sometimes in a circle. Adding a new edgeloop 43 www. This allows you to move the mouse to different positions so that you can decide where the loop should go the pink line moves with the mouse before finalizing the move with a single LMB-click. A final LMB-click anchors the newly formed edgeloop into place. In other words, two edgeloops are selected, running through the vertices of the selected edge.

The Edges menu 44 www. For a selected area, you can choose whether you want to delete faces, edges, or vertices, and there are subtle differences in the results. Deleting vertices deletes all the faces that depend on those vertices; deleting edges deletes the respective edges and faces along the edge selected, leaving vertices attached to any edges not selected for deletion; and deleting faces leaves the connected vertices and edges behind, only deleting the solid wall.

You can also delete edgeloops using this menu—a real time-saver when you want to get rid of long lines of vertices. On choosing where the vertices should meet e. This function is very useful for stitching areas together, as with a zipper. Likewise, in edit mode, it is possible to split a mesh into different objects with the P key. Generally, the workflow is to select the faces you wish to separate, press P, and choose Selection from the pop-up menu.

For any 3D view, press the N key to bring up the Properties panel. Toward the bottom is the Background Images check box; select it and then click the Add Image button in the same area you might need to hit the black triangle to expand the Background Images area. A new area for the image will appear, saying that the image is not set. Click the white arrow to open a file dialog where you can navigate to find a suitable image for the view window.

See Figure 3—17 for example settings. This feature is useful for placing blueprints behind an image as a reference for modeling over. Note that background images only work when the view is orthographic, which means that the view is flat. This is opposed to a perspective view, where things that are close up appear larger.

Press numpad 5 to toggle between orthographic and perspective views. Background images from www. The Background Images properties in the Properties panel Topology When editing an organic model, especially one meant to be used in animation, it is important to consider the topology of edgeloops. Often, smoothing a model with multiresolution or subsurface modifiers will distort the overall shape if the topology is bad.

Edges should be evenly distributed, and extra edges should be positioned at sharp corners. For shapes like the head, it is good edgeflow to have concentric circles around cavities like the mouth and eyes see Figure 3— This allows for a lot of flexibility in terms of easy reshaping, opening, closing, and so on.

For limbs that bend, such as elbows and finger joints, it is good practice to have three edgeloops or more around each bend in order to enable the mesh geometry to bend in a smooth curve. Poorly aligned edgeloops can make the desired surface deformations more difficult to create e. Edgeloops of a face should ideally form concentric circles around the eyes and mouth. Example Modeling Through Mesh Editing Modeling is fairly simple in terms of the number of functions needed, but it can take a lot of time to do well.

Even at a professional level, modelers are always learning better ways of doing things, and the best teacher is practice. That is, make models, make more models, and then more until the process becomes second nature. The Mirror Modifier: Making a Mirror Cube Many objects are symmetrical including people, animals, boats, cars, planes, chairs, tables, space aliens, and monsters.

Thankfully, Blender provides a mirror modifier that can be used when modeling such objects, so you can model one side of an object while Blender automatically creates the other. Start with the default cube, and go to front view in edit mode press numpad 1. Place your mouse over the top edge of the cube. At this point, a vertical edgeloop should appear. If not, the mouse pointer may be in the wrong position; circle your mouse over the top edge until the vertical edgeloop appears, or repeat the last step until a pink preview edgeloop appears.

When you are satisfied that the edgeloop is in the correct place, LMB-click once only. As you move the mouse horizontally, the new edgeloop will slide back and forth. The header section will show an edge slide percent reading of how far out you are moving the line. Alternatively, pressing Esc also works in this case.

Note that this technique 48 www. You can also type in numeric values to manually specify how much something is moved. When the new edgeloop is in place, press Enter to anchor it in position. Your cube should now look something like Figure 3— New edgeloop at center position 6. Now that you have a line down the middle, you only actually need one half of the cube to enter mirror mode, so you need to delete the other side. Select the far side. This way, you can simply drag the mouse to select the four vertices you want in one movement.

Likewise, holding down Ctrl and LMB- dragging a circle around the area is yet another way of quickly selecting a group of vertices. These methods are faster than one- by-one selection, although you may want to simply select vertices one at a time if that is what you are comfortable with. You should now have half a cube Figure 3— Go to the Modifiers panel on the Modifiers tab the spanner icon.

Half a cube 8. Add a mirror modifier Figure 3— You should now see the cube in full. Note that the default settings for a mirror modifier are to mirror along the x axis, as marked in the Modifiers panel in Figure 3— Adding a mirror modifier Figure 3— Mirror modifier default settings 9. Click Clipping in the Modifiers panel. The clipping function welds the vertices at the center together. Without it you can tear open the mesh at the middle seam.

There are times where you may need to temporarily switch it off, such as when extruding legs out in different directions. Save this file as mirrorcube. The final result is shown in Figure 3— The finished mirror cube, ready to model something symmetrical A Note on Modifiers Mesh modifiers can be thought of as additions to mesh objects.

They work like filters in that the actual mesh is unchanged while the modifier works its magic to complete the effect. They are a safe way of creating effects because of their nondestructive nature; only when the Apply button in the Modifiers panel is clicked do modifiers affect the real vertices of the final mesh. The order of modifiers is important, as the top ones in the list in the Modifiers panel are applied before any modifiers further down the list.

For example, if a multiresolution modifier or any other that partially shrinks a mesh is applied before a mirror modifier, the shrinkage may cause a gap in the middle seam of the resulting object; on the other hand, mirroring first with clipping enabled in the Modifiers panel and then smoothing creates no such seam.

Some modifiers are fixed about their order. It is not possible to apply a multiresolution modifier after a mirror modifier, because it would create a buffer of separate resolutions that would be too difficult for Blender to accurately update if the modifiers were able to switch around. Options for where the effect is shown 52 www.

You can experiment to discover whether some of the listed modifiers do what you would expect. Smoothing a Mesh Because mesh edges are straight, you need lots of vertices to make smooth-looking curves. Fortunately, Blender has a couple of methods for smoothing the look of your models. The Subsurface Modifier The subsurface modifier, which is used frequently by modelers, subdivides your mesh so that every face is split two ways, with each quad face becoming four faces. In the subsurface options on the Modifiers tab, there are View and Render options.

The View field affects how smooth the mesh looks in 3D view, and the Render property specifies the degree of smoothness in the final render e. We will look more into rendering in Chapter 4. By bumping these numbers up, you increase the level of smoothness for your mesh. Generally speaking, most people use subsurface modifiers to smooth their models, and use multiresolution modifiers for sculpting purposes. Box-Modeling a Man Box modeling is a process by which you start with a cube, extrude face by face, and add edgeloops as necessary see Figure 3— Example of box modeling.

This model started as cube with a mirror modifier see the following section , and faces were extruded out to form the torso and head, and then the legs and arms. Note that to get accurate shapes, some individual vertex positions had to be adjusted. The workflow usually involves starting out with a general shape and then sculpting to add details. Sculpting can be used to get right down to the wrinkles of a character. For this reason, we are going to use the multiresolution modifier to increase the number of vertices while we sculpt the model into shape.

By the end of the sculpting, we will have created a convincing model with a technique that is very similar to modeling with clay. Start off with the default Blender scene. You should be looking at the default cube with the Tool Shelf open on the left, and the Main Buttons panel open on the right, as shown in Figure 3— If the Tool Shelf is missing, activate it with the T key.

Default panels Getting into Position Go to front view numpad 1 , and then move the view slightly off center by holding down the MMB and dragging the mouse to one side. Roll your MW to zoom in so that the cube takes up most of the screen space. Make sure the cube is selected by RMB-clicking it. Click the Modifiers tab the wrench in the main Properties panel to the right of the screen.

You should see a button labeled Add Modifier. On pressing this you will be confronted with an extensive list of possible modifiers. In the leftmost column under Generate , choose Multiresolution. Selecting the multiresolution modifier At this point, the Multiresolution panel should appear, as shown in Figure 3— Click the Subdivide button a few times.

The shape of the cube gets smoothed, making it begin to resemble a sphere. Essentially, the number in each of these settings is the same thing: the number of times subdivide has been used. The difference is that Preview is for the main 3D view, Sculpt is for when Sculpt mode is being used, and Render is for the amount of multiresolution that will show in the final rendered image.

If you push multiresolution too far, Blender may start to slow down. In this case, you can manually change these settings to lower a number. The arrows at each end of these settings buttons allow you to lower and raise the values using mouse clicks see Figure 3— Multiresolution level control.

Using the arrows at either end, you can tweak how smooth the multiresoution levels are. Currently, you are likely to be in object mode. With the cube selected, switch to sculpt mode using the drop-down menu on the header strip, along the bottom of the 3D window see Figure 3— Switching to sculpt mode The Tool Shelf should now display the sculpting tools. Expand the Symmetry panel near the bottom of the Tool Shelf and check the X box under the Mirror setting, as shown in Figure 3— Now, when you sculpt one side of the cube, the sculpting effects will be applied to both sides.

This is useful for making faces, which are symmetrical. Checking the X option Types of Brushes In sculpt mode, you can select different brushes by clicking the image of the brush effect at the top of the Tool Shelf which will show other brushes. Once a brush is chosen, you then rub the object over the mouse pointer while holding down the LMB. Some brushes have an Add and a Subtract option to give them positive and negative opposite effects e.

From this point, you sculpt the mesh simply by drawing on the surface while holding the LMB down. Simply change the brushes and their associated options on the Tool Shelf to achieve different effects. Stop reading now. Experiment with each brush to see what it does. Remember that you can maximize the screen by holding down Shift and pressing the spacebar, and you can hide the Properties panel by pressing the N key; doing so will reduce clutter and give you more space to work with.

Table 3—1 gives you a brief summary of what you should find. This is the brush that is the best for drawing lines. Layer This brush works similarly to Draw, except that you define a height for the draw lines the Add option raises the lines and the Subtract option deepens them. Blob This applies a buffing effect to an area. Clay This shrinks areas inward using the Add option or expands them using the Subtract option against a center point. Surface-Shifting Brushes Nudge This pushes areas of the mesh along the surface.

Thumb This generates a subtle rubbing effect. It has more of a digging effect than the Nudge tool. Grab This grabs hold of an area and moves it with the brush. Snake Hook This is similar to the Grab tool, but allows you to pull areas out in tentacle-like arcs. Twist This moves the surface area around in a spiral. Crease The Add option pinches the mesh to make a peak, and the Subtract option creases the mesh inward like a valley.

Polish This smoothes areas of the mesh while trying to maintain the general shape. It should be noted that the key to successful sculpting is not in learning a list like Table 3—1. Rather, just experiment and see what each tool does. They have multiple uses, and sculpting is good for experimenting with reshaping large portions of a mesh, as well as refining finer details. The initial multiresolution cube 1. Push in the eyes with the Draw tool, as shown in Figure 3— The eyes are started.

Sculpt in the basic features, as shown in Figure 3— Basic features are added 3. Increase the level of the multiresolution modifier e. Finer details are added 4. Keep raising the multiresolution level in order to suit the level of detail you wish to sculpt, as shown in Figure 3— This technique can be a lot of fun, and you can learn a lot about the brushes simply by experimenting.

For really effective sculpting, you would not normally start with a cube and sculpt it into shape as we have done. This approach typically results in a large number of vertices, as well as an unevenness in the density of the mesh areas that have been inflated will have fewer vertices than areas that have been condensed through the sculpting process. A better approach is to create the general shape of the mesh using the standard box-modeling techniques, and then apply sculpt mode in order to attain the finer details.

Add warts, wrinkles, and so forth. You might also like to change its facial expression Figure 3— Sculpted monkey Using Sculpt and Mesh Modeling Together: Retopology We have looked at sculpting as a means of shaping a model from a simple cube. Thus, the result slows down rendering and is pretty much useless for animation. There is also no real consideration of edgeflow when using sculpt as the modeling method.

Thankfully, there is a remodeling technique known as retopology, where it is possible to mold a new mesh around the sculpted original. This way, you can improve the edgeloops and have a new mesh that is much more suitable for animation, while adopting the shape from the original. Retopology is an advanced technique that combines the strengths of both sculpt and mesh modeling.

With the sculpted model on the screen, make a new plane and shrink it down. Place it in front of the sculpted object so that it is floating a small distance from the surface. In front view, the new mesh should be very small, as in Figure 3— Start with a new plane that floats just in front of the surface of your source reference model. This turns surface snapping retopology on. The next button brings up the Snap Element menu, from which you should choose Face the cube icon.

The next button brings up the Snap Target menu, from which you should choose Closest. These buttons are shown in Figure 3— With these settings, any moved vertices will drop neatly onto the surface of the mesh behind them, thereby taking its shape. Retopology settings With the second mesh sticking to the older sculpted version like shrink wrap, you can position lines to their edgeflow while maintaining the shape of the original mesh. Press the E key to extrude individual vertices out and around the base mesh, and they should spread along the surface.

Using this method, you can draw topology over your old sculpture by extruding the edges of the newer version, as shown in Figures 3—43 and 3— Retopology modeling over a sculpted model to recreate a mesh with improved edgelooping 66 www. In this chapter, we have gone a step further by editing the individual mesh objects themselves.

Mesh objects are formed as a network of vertex points, connected by edges and faces in order to represent a solid-looking physical form. We looked at the differences between object mode, in which whole mesh objects can be arranged, and edit mode, in which the individual vertices, edges, or faces of the mesh object can be changed to affect the shape of the mesh object itself.

There are a variety of commands available in edit mode e. In addition to direct mesh editing, this chapter described sculpt mode, which provides for a fun method of modeling that some beginners have reported as being more intuitive. Note, however, that sculpt mode is not a traditionally accepted modeling technique, largely due to its lack of consideration for good edgeflow and the large number of vertices it creates in a mesh once applied.

I ended with showing a method of tying the two techniques together—sculpting to create a desired form, and then using traditional mesh editing with retopology to create a mesh using the sculpted version as a base scaffolding or reference. In practice, you can mix techniques however you like to get the results you need.

They are the tools and you are the artist. If you want to show your amazing creations to others, and you light the scene poorly, the final result will not be impressive, putting all your hard modeling work into disregard. I covered tabs in Chapter 2, but I want to remind you of them here since I use them frequently.

Bear in mind that some tabs are contextual. For example, the Object Data tab may have a different appearance depending on what has been selected in the main scene. If in doubt, you can always verify the name of a tab by hovering the mouse over it; after a second or so, the name of the tab should show below the mouse pointer in a floating box. Of course, if you have a model of your own that you wish to render, by all means use that instead.

Start with the default scene and delete the default cube RMB-select it and press X. Figure 4—1. The monkey primitive 3. The monkey will be facing upward, but we want it to face forward. With the monkey selected, press R and then X, and then type the number 55 followed by Enter to make it face outward to the front view.

Note that 90 degrees would make the monkey face straight ahead, but 55 degrees is the angle to correctly position the monkey so that it can sit on a ground plane, as in Figures 4—1 and 4—2. Adding a Ground Plane Unless you want the model to appear as though it is airborne, you might also like to add a ground plane: 1. Scale the plane about seven times press S, type 7, and then press Enter.

Move the monkey upward in the Z direction so that it sits comfortably on the plane when looked at from the side view. Side view of the monkey positioned on the ground plane Note that pressing numpad 3 will display the side view. Also, pressing numpad 5 toggles between orthographic and perspective view modes, which might also be useful. It is easier to line the monkey up in orthographic view mode because it shows the side view in a very flat manner, which makes it easy to position items on the ground plane.

For the monkey model, I also like to add a subdivision surface modifier to smooth out the octagonal look. With the monkey selected, click the Modifiers tab wrench icon , click the Add Modifier button, and choose Subdivision Surface modifier. The monkey should now be positioned so that it is resting on the ground plane, and we are ready to set up lights and render the scene. If you navigate around the scene you should find two objects. One, a black dot with a couple of dotted circles around it Figure 4—4 , is a lamp to light the scene, and the other, which looks something like a floating pyramid Figure 4—5 , is the scene camera.

The square face of the camera is the front end, and is marked with a black triangle to one side, representing which way is up. The default lamp point lamp Once a scene has been set up, it is usual to render the view. The 3D view within Blender is more of a workbench, preparing a scene for a glorious final render, which is normally taken from the point of view of the camera.

We need to know how to line the camera up so that it is looking at the object s we want it to see when we generate the all-important final shot. Figure 4—5. The camera The camera can be moved around like any other object RMB-select it, and then use the G and R keys to reposition it. However, it is useful to be able to see what the camera is looking at while you are setting it in position for the shot.

To do this, split the 3D view into two as described in Chapter 2 drag the diagonal stripes at the top-right corner of the 3D view into the middle. Now the window you apply this action to will show what the camera can see. You can move the camera around in the other 3D view window while getting instant feedback on how well your shot is lining up. In this mode, the view pivots around to follow your mouse pointer.

Using the W and S keys or rolling the MW causes the view to accelerate in and out of the scene. Clicking the LMB causes the view to halt but keep the position , whereas clicking the RMB resets the view to the starting position. A common and powerful way of aiming the camera accurately is to make it track to another object. The idea is to make the camera automatically face the target object—similar to a strong magnet.

Move the object, and the camera will swing around to keep it in view; move the camera, and it will rotate to keep looking in the direction of the target object. RMB-select the camera. Shift-RMB-select the target object so that both the camera and the model are selected. On the menu that appears, choose Track To Constraint. Now when you move the camera around, it will always face the target object.

You can now position the camera without having to worry about rotating it to line up the shot, because it always faces the object. It is a good idea to split the 3D view into two, and then set one to camera view in order to keep track of what the render camera will look like this setup is shown in Figure 4—6. Try this, and then move the camera around to see how easy it is to position the camera for a shot. Figure 4—6. Using a split view to show what the camera sees 74 www.

With the camera selected, go to the Object Constraints tab the icon for which looks like a couple of links in a chain , and you should see an area where this constraint has been added. This tab allows you to set various options, such as allowing the different axes X, Y, or Z of the camera to point to the object —Z is normally the correct direction for the front of a camera.

There is a good chance that the desired options will be set for you by default. Tracking to an Empty Target The TrackTo method is fine if you want the camera to point straight at an object. However, sometimes you might want the camera to be off center from its target object. Or, in the case of animation, you might not want the camera to keep following the target object around.

One solution is not to track to the target object directly, but instead track to an empty target as shown in Figure 4—7. This target will not show in the final render, but act as a controller for where the camera is to be pointed. Simply position the empty target at the area of the object you want the camera to focus on.

Figure 4—7. Tracking to an empty target This setup is very easy: 1. This will create an empty object, which has no vertices. It is important that the empty is selected last, as Blender knows to make the first selected object point to the last selected item. Now the camera will always look toward the empty.

Simply place the empty where you need the camera to look. In this way, you can easily position it to achieve off-center shots when required. Fixing Up the Camera View The default camera can tend to give a fish-eye view of models, as though the scene were small and the camera right up close.

In order to lessen the perspective distortion, take the following steps: 75 www. Select the camera and go to the Object Data tab when the camera is selected, this tab will appear as a camera icon , as shown in Figure 4—8. Go down to the Lens section, and change the angle from 35 to something like 50 or another setting that you prefer.

The scene as viewed through the camera will appear to jump to a bigger size, but pulling the camera back to reestablish the framing of the shot will cause less distortion now, as the camera is further away.

Figure 4—8. Using this option causes any 3D view from the camera perspective to visually darken the area falling outside of the immediate camera viewport, making it very clear to see where the edges of a render will fall see Figure 4—9. Figure 4—9. The Passepartout option in the camera settings causes a camera view window to visually define an area for the main camera viewport.

This illustration demonstrates both without left and with Passepartout right. This will generate an image based on what the camera sees, which you can then save by pressing F3. Figure 4— A render with a one-point lamp and no lighting enhancements. Notice the very dark shadows.

We are now going to look at a few different ways of lighting the scene better. Blender has several lamps available, including the point lamp, and the sun, spot, hemi, and area lights. The essential differences between these lights are outlined in Table 4—1. With appropriate falloff, it can resemble a candle or a small lightbulb.

It is very useful for rim light effects, where parts of an object need to be lit in order to stand out from the background. Sun Otherwise known as a directional light, this is light that floods a scene from a given angle. It gets its name because it is similar to how the sky lights the world: flooding the scene from a given direction, not from a single point.

Location does not affect sun lights; it is the rotation that is important. Whichever way a sun light is rotated, the whole scene gets light from that particular angle with parallel light rays. Spot This is similar to a point lamp, but within a restricted V-shape direction. This light works very much like a theater spotlight. It casts a circle on a surface it is aimed at, and has settings to control the softness of the circular edges.

Hemi A hemi light produces an ambiance similar to a sun light, except that instead of creating light from a single direction, it acts as though the light is emitted from a sky dome. It is like having a single sun from the dominant direction, accompanied with smaller lights to illuminate the sides of objects in the scene.

Area An area light is like having a cluster of lights over an area of a specified size. It is useful for creating light emitted from a surface, such as a TV or the back of a fridge. The different types of lights are listed, and by LMB-clicking one, you will accordingly change the type of the selected light. Lamp Settings The available lights have a lot of options, and it pays to explore them in order to use the lights effectively.

In the scene with the monkey, select the lamp and change it to a spot type by going to the Object Data tab and selecting Spot. The lamp in 3D view should now resemble a cone that you can rotate to face the monkey object much like a stage light. Do this, and press F12 to check that the spotlight is indeed illuminating the monkey object.

Now we are going to examine some of the important options available for the spotlight. There are a lot, so please use Figure 4—11 as a guide while I outline the functionality of some of them. Various options for the spot lamp, and where they can be found on the Object Data tab 79 www. The Energy setting controls the brightness of the light. The Falloff Distance setting controls the general reach of the spotlight and also point lamps , as shown in Figure 4— By default, light begins to fade after it has reached the length defined by the falloff distance.

However, if you check the Sphere check box under the Falloff Distance setting, then light will fade earlier, reaching zero brightness by the time it reaches the falloff distance. Falloff distance Spot size and spot blend are unique to spotlights. The Spot Size setting controls the size of the circle of light cast by the spotlight. The number in this field directly corresponds to the angle of spread of the spotlight the V shape of the spotlight as viewed from the side.

The Spot Blend setting defines the thickness of a fuzzy border that is applied to the cast circle of light. With low amounts of spot blend, the circle of light cast by a spotlight has sharply defined edges. As the blend is increased, the edges of the circle fade.

Figure 4—13 shows a sequence of changes made to a spotlight. In the top three images, the spot size is increased, and in the final image, the spot blend is increased to soften the edge of the cast circle of light. Changing the spot size top three images and then adding spot blend bottom image In the Shadow area of the panels are Buffer Shadow and Raytraced Shadow options.

Raytraced shadows provide more physically accurate results, but can be slow to render. Buffer shadows are quicker to render, but less accurate. Buffer shadows have Clip Start and Clip End values, which define an area within which the shadows are calculated. Objects should be within the range of these two values if they are to be affected by light and shadows from a lamp casting buffer shadows. Shadow settings also have a Soft Size value, which works alongside the Samples value to soften the edges of shadows cast by the light.

The Soft Size value blurs the shadow to give it a soft look, as shown in Figure 4— The image on the left has a Soft Size value of 0, the middle image has a value of 3, and the right image has a value of 5. Different Soft Size values applied in the shadow settings of a spotlight 81 www. With low values, grainy dots can be quite visible, as shown in Figure 4— In the figure, all of the images use a shadow with a Soft Size setting of 3, but the images from left to right have Samples set to 0, 3, and 5, respectively.

Notice the visible graininess of the middle image, which has a low sample size. Different amounts of shadow samples Soft size and samples complement each other. If either of these values is set to the minimum, the other one has nothing to work with. For example, if Soft Size is set to 0, the shadow will simply have very hard edges, and the Samples value will not change the look of it.

Inversely, if Samples is set to 1, then no visible blur will be evident, regardless of the Soft Size setting. Using the Lights Together The available lights in Blender give you a lot of flexibility for lighting any scene.

There is much theory on proper lighting technique. However, at the end of the day, lighting should illuminate the scene and give depth to objects through shading. There should be a range of tones, but areas of absolute black or overblown white should be avoided.

Because our eyes adjust, even night scenes should be lit enough to suggest the form of objects. With color and careful consideration of the effects of shadows, lighting can also be used to set mood. For our purposes, lighting consists of a key light, which is the main light source, and as- needed fill lights to add ambiance to otherwise unlit areas. Adding the Key Light The key to setting up lights is to start simple. Find out where your key light is going to come from.

If you are outdoors, it could be the sun. Indoors, it might come from a window or a light. Delete all lights other than your main key light. As used in scenarios such as lighting the monkey, spotlights generally make good key lights, although different environments will have their own suitable exceptions. Examples would be lighting one side of an object while leaving the other side in shade. There are always exceptions, though, as scenes can have more than one key light.

With the light selected, go to the Object Data tab and rename the light Key, as shown in Figure 4— The following subsections describe a couple of simple strategies you can use to help speed up the process. This is done in the same way as tracking a camera to an object: 1. RMB-select the light.

Shift-RMB-select the object. It is important that the object is selected last. Now when you move the key light around, it will always point to the object. It is therefore possible to reposition the key light e. This allows you to control the angle of your lighting simply by moving the empty around the scene. GLSL gives you close-to-render-quality lighting as you move your lights around, enabling you to quickly fine-tune lighting adjustments without having to perform a full render for every little change.

To use GLSL, do the following: 4. Select Textured from the Viewport Shading options in the header strip of the 3D window see Figure 4— Switching to textured viewport mode Change the color of the key light to suit the environment the lighting is from, depending on the light source. Note that only a slight tint is needed, since key lights are usually nearly white.

Render the image and see the effect your single lighting setup has. Your render should show the object with some pretty strong shadows which we will soon fix with fill lights. This is the main light though, so again make sure you take time to place the key light in a position that causes the shadows to show off the form of your model see Figure 4— Single key light Adding Fill Lights In the real world, while the key light source may be at one spot in 3D space, objects tend to be lit from all sides.

This is because of ambient light light that fills a room in general and bounced light light that bounces off surfaces in directions that differ from the original source. Because light bounces off things, shadows are never completely black. To simulate this effect, fill lights are needed.

Sun lights are good for this, as they give a constant direction. Unless you want a theatrical effect where a figure has multiple shadows, you should disable the shadows of fill lights. You can do this by clicking the No Shadow button in the Shadow area of the Object Data tab make sure the light is selected when you do this. Look for any black areas of your model and position fill lights there. It can be a good idea to use strong, bright colors for fill lights as in Figure 4—19 , in order to isolate their illumination from that of the main key light; however, be sure to recolor them to something sensible when done positioning.

Start with a main key light and strategically position fill lights to illuminate the dark areas. The image should still have a definite sense of key light direction, as in Figure 4— Tone down the fill lights. A scene typically has a key light and two or more fill lights to reduce the darkness at selected areas.

Beware of banding, which is caused when two sides of an object are lit, leaving a black band in the middle, as shown in Figure 4— More light may be needed to deal with such areas. Examples of banding caused by a lack of fill lights Generally, the key light will have a brightness of 1. Do not worry too much about altering the scene brightness to perfection my final version is shown in Figure 4— That could take a long time, though a good fix for this is with Nodes, covered in Chapter 9.

Match the hues to the environment. The lighting is now fairly balanced. Changing the World Besides positioning key and fill lights, there are other global options that can make your renders more effective. Go to the World tab shown in Figure 4— The first options in the World area allow you to change the default background color of a scene. The World tab 87 www.

Immediately below this are color squares that allow you to change the horizon color, zenith color, and ambient color. The horizon and zenith colors affect sky colors, whereas the ambient color affects the light that is reflected onto objects in the scene.

Basically, these options draw a gradient in the background of your render. Play with these options and render to see what each does. Further down are the options for ambient occlusion. To get an idea of how this works, check the Ambient Occlusion box, and render the scene again by pressing F The scene will take longer to render, but a certain element of realism will be added to the shading see Figure 4— Ambient occlusion works by shading in darkening areas of scene objects that are close to each other, and where there are tight angles between faces.

The effect of ambient occlusion on the render Ambient occlusion is something of a trick, but it can make otherwise plain renders look great. Also take a look at the Environment Lighting option. This allows the color you chose for the ambient color of the sky to illuminate objects in the scene see Figure 4— Bear in mind that you can change the sky color using the buttons in the World area of the World tab.

Environment lighting has an effect similar to ambient occlusion. Once you have positioned a key light, using ambient occlusion can sometimes be sufficient to simulate the lighting effects you would normally assign to fill lights. Of course, these methods do not beat the effectiveness of well-positioned lighting when you have the time. Press Tab to enter edit mode, which will allow you to change the writing. A new text object 9.

When done, press Tab to return to object mode, and go the Object Data tab with the text object selected, the Object Data icon resembles an F, as shown at the top of Figure 4— Adjusting the settings of the text object If you like, you can also bump up the Resolution setting to about 3 for a more rounded look.

Center-aligning the text object 90 www. Move the name you have created onto a plane, stand it upright e. We are going to use this new object to experiment with some basic materials. To create a new material for the text, go to the Material tab see Figure 4— It is likely that your object will have no material at all yet.

Click the New button, and you should see a whole lot of panels open up, with many settings to play with. Certainly, with so many new options appearing, it is important to isolate a few of the important ones. As with new objects, when making a new material, it is a good idea to name it first so that the material can be easily located later, once there are many materials. There is a special name tag at the top of the Material tab where you can type in a unique name for the material datablock.

The datablock is the base material that all other material properties associated with that material become a part of, so essentially it is the material itself. A sensible name for a material might be Skin, Leather, or Green Plastic.

It should describe briefly the type of material you are going to create. A very important step is to pick the base color technically known as the diffuse color of the material. There is a Diffuse area on the Material tab with a rectangle representing the current material color. LMB-click this rectangle and a dialog will open allowing you to set the color. Aim 91 www. Skin could be light yellow or brown, plastic should be bright, and so forth. Once you have the base color set, there are numerous options on the Material tab to fine- tune the look of your material.

For example, the Specular area of the Material tab controls the specular highlight—that is, the shiny dot that appears on a surface when light hits it seen commonly enough on a billiard ball. By sliding the Intensity bar in this section, you can effectively change the look of a surface from hard and shiny to soft and rubbery e.

Important material settings There are many settings here. It would be best for you to experiment with each to see what it does. Note that the top of the Material tab shows a sphere preview of what your material should look like when rendered. To the right of this preview are buttons to test the material datablock with different objects. Of course, it is most rewarding to see your material render on the real object from your 3D view, which should have adopted the material you have created.

Then, provided your camera and lighting are well set up, you can use F12 to render the scene see Figure 4— Base color material with green diffuse hue Using Procedural Textures Changing the color and a few other properties of a base material is fine, but the real power of procedural materials comes from adding textures.

From the pores in an orange peel to the rough surface of concrete to the grain of wood, most surfaces have some kind of a pattern. In this section, we are going to take the material we have made and enhance it by adding a textured pattern Figure 4— When this texture is made, we will change the properties so that it does not just affect the color of the material, but also the quality of the surface so that the texture appears to be bumpy Figure 4— Go to the Texture tab.

There is a list of texture slots, but it is likely empty because we have not made any textures yet. With the topmost slot selected, click the New button. A cloud texture should immediately be applied to your material. Take a render press F12 , and you should see that the texture has indeed been applied to the material of your model, in a purple color see Figure 4— When first added, textures initially affect the color with a default purple hue.

At this point, you can choose a different patterned texture from the Type drop-down list e. Again, render to see the results of any change you make. Go to the bottom of the Texture tab, and in the Influence area, LMB-click the purple rectangle to change the color to something more suitable. Alternatively, still in the Influence area, change the material properties the texture affects.

There is a slider bar that affects the intensity of these bumps. This should give you results similar to those in Figure 4— Material applied as color and as normals bumps Textures can affect bump, transparency, and all manner of surface qualities. Using Multiple Materials in One Mesh One of the trickier things to do is mix materials on a single mesh. If you give the mesh a material e.

Any time you select faces and change the material, the whole mesh changes. The reason is that for a mesh to have separate materials, it must first be divided into separate islands of material slots, each of which can then be assigned its own separate material as needed. Once these material slots are so assigned, then it is possible to assign them to separate faces.

Start with default cube. Go to the Material tab. Make a new material or use an existing one. Make the material yellow, name it yellow, and change its diffuse color to match. Notice that the material slots at the top displays the material, as shown in Figure 4— There should now be two slots, both showing that they are sharing the same yellow material. If you change the material qualities for one slot, it will inadvertently change the material used by the other, because they are actually using the same material.

Now go down to the material datablocks. There should be a 2 next to the yellow material, meaning that there are two slots sharing the material datablock. Click the 2 to make the materials single-user. This effectively clones the material so that there are two copies, yellow and yellow. Now making changes to one will no longer affect the other. With the material slot using yellow. At the moment, the whole object is using the first material slot with the yellow color.

Now go into edit mode and select a few faces. Make sure the material slot with the red material is selected, and click the Assign button. The selected faces should now bear the red material. Material slots By adding new material slots, adding new materials to these slots, and then assigning them to different faces of your object, you can have separate procedural materials for different areas of your mesh.

Take a final render showing them all see the example in Figure 4— Same cup, different textures Summary This chapter examined how to set up cameras and lights for creating renders that will do justice to your work. It covered what Blender has to offer in terms of the available lights, and it explored how particular lamp settings can change the appearance of a scene. We also took a brief look at lighting theory, with an emphasis on the importance of setting up key lights and fill lights to illuminate a scene.

Finally, we had a look at the steps involved in applying a simple procedural texture to a mesh. We examined how such textures are capable of affecting not only the color of an object, but other surface qualities such as bumpiness. Lighting and texturing are very in-depth subjects, and these examples have only scratched the surface.

I encourage you to experiment with the settings to create your own lighting and texturing effects. To further your understanding of lighting, in Chapter 9 I will cover composite nodes, which allow you to fine-tune your renders in terms of brightness and contrast.

In the next chapter, we will examine how to hand-paint on a mesh to create textures that are more realistic than ever. With the procedural textures of last chapter, you made a material and changed its properties to create the look of a surface texture you wished to emulate. However, there are limitations to how much a procedural map can do.

Table 5—1 compares the two techniques. Table 5—1. Figure 5—1. Blender model textured through a UV map 97 www.

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