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Mira Motorcycles - Engineer. Mircos Racing Automobilismo Ltd a - Engineer. Motorsport Guide - Editor. Multimatic - Chief Aerodynamicist. Newton Equiptment Ltd - Managing Director. Nurburgring Automotive - Executive Project Manager. This delay time decreases with increase in speed. If there is no delay, the fuel would burn at injector and there would be oxygen deficiency around the injector, which results in incomplete combustion.
If the delay period is too long, amount of fuel availability for simultaneous explosion, is too great, which results in rapid pressure rise. The delay period should be as short as possible since long delay period gives more rapid rise in pressure and thus causes knocking. Component of Ignition Delay or Ignition Lag VTU Feb Ignition delay can be divided into two parts: Physical Delay: The physical delay is the time between the beginning of injection and the attainment of chemical reaction conditions.
During this period, the fuel is atomized, vaporized, mixed with air and raised to its self-ignition temperature. This physical delay depends on the type of fuel, i. The physical delay is greatly reduced by using high injection pressures and high turbulence to facilitate breakup of the jet and improving evaporation.
Chemical Delay: During the chemical delay reactions start slowly and then accelerate until inflammation or ignition takes place. Generally, the chemical delay is larger than the physical delay. Turbulence which is required in SI engine implies disordered air motion with no general direction of flow to break up the surface of flame front and to distribute the shreds of flame thought-out out in externally prepared homogeneous combustible mixture.
High octane fuel low cetane is required. Fuel is not injected at once, but spread over a period of time. Initial droplets meet air whose temperature is above self ignition temperature and ignite after ignition delay. For effective combustion, swirl is required. Swirl which is required in CI engine implies an orderly movement of whole body of air with a particular direction of flow, to bring a continuous supply of fresh air to each burning droplets and sweep away the products of combustion which otherwise suffocate it.
In the CI engine, the ignition occurs at many points simultaneously with consequent c rapid rise in pressure. There is no definite flame front. In CI engine physical delay controls combustion. In CI engine, irrespective of load, at any speed, an approximately constant supply of air enters the cylinder. Delay period must be as short as possible. The important ones are: compression ratio engine speed output injection timing quality of the fuel intake temperature intake pressure 1.
Compression Ratio. The increase in the compression temperature of the air with increase in compression ratio evaluated at the end of the compression on stroke is shown in Fig. It is also seen from the same figure that the minimum auto ignition temperature of a fuel decreases due to increased density of the compressed air.
This results in a closer contact between the molecules of fuel and oxygen reducing the time of reaction. The increase in the compression temperature as a well as the decrease in the minimum auto ignition temperature decrease the delay period. The maximum peak pressure during the combustion process is only marginally affected by the compression ratio because delay period is shorter with higher compression ratio and hence the pressure rise is lower.
Then why we do not use very high compression ratio in CI? One of the practical disadvantages of using a very high compression sion ratio is that the mechanical efficiency tends to decrease due to increase in weight of the reciprocating parts. Therefore, engine designers always try to use a lower compression ratio which helps in easy cold starting and light load running at high speeds. Engine Speed: The delay period could be given either in terms of absolute time in milliseconds or in terms of crank angle degrees With increase in engine speed, the loss of heat during compression decreases, resulting in the rise of both the temperature and pressure of the compressed air thus reducing the delay period in milliseconds.
However, in degrees of crank travel the delay period increases as the engine operates at a higher rpm. The fuel pump is geared to the engine, and hence the amount of fuel injected during the delay period depends on crank degrees and not on absolute time. Hence, at high speeds, there will be more fuel present in the cylinder to take part in the second stage of uncontrolled combustion resulting in high rate of pressure rise.
The rate of pressure rise is unaffected but the peak pressure reached may be high. Injection timing: The effect of injection advance on the pressure variation is shown in Fig. The injected quantity of fuel per cycle is constant. As the pressure and temperature at the beginning of injection are lower for higher ignition advance, the delay period increases with increase in injection advance. The optimum angle of injection advance depends on many factors but generally it is about 20 btdc.
Quality of Fuel used: The physical and chemical properties of fuel play very important role in delay period. The most important property of fuel which is responsible for chemical delay is its self- ignition temperature. Lower the self-ignition temperature, lower the delay period. The cetane number CN of the fuel is another important parameter which is responsible for the delay period.
A fuel of higher cetane number gives lower delay period and provides smoother engine operation. The effect of cetane number on the indicator diagram when injection timing is same is shown in adjacent figure. The other properties of fuel which affects the physical delay period are volatility, latent heat, viscosity and surface tension. The viscosity and surface tension are responsible for the better atomization whereas latent heat and viscosity are responsible for the rapid evaporation of fuel.
Intake Temperature The delay period is reduced either with increased temperature.. However, preheating of charge for this purpose is not desirable because it reduces the density of charge and volumetric efficiency and power output. Intake pressure Increase in intake pressure or supercharging reduces the auto ignition temperature and hence reduces the delay period.
The peak pressure will be higher since the compression pressure will increase with intake pressure. Decrease Increase in terms of crank angle but little effect in terms of milliseconds. Lower for engines with pre-combustion chamber Reason Reduces the self ignition temperature Reduces the physical delay due to greater surface to volume ratio Reduces the pressure and temperature when the injection begins Increases air temperature and pressure and reduces auto ignition temperature Increase air temperature Increase wall and hence air temperature Increases chemical reaction due to better vaporization Increases the density and also reduces the auto ignition temperature Reduce loss of heat Increase the operating temperature Larger engines operate at normally slow speeds.
Due to compactness of the chamber. Consequently, as the first few droplets injected are passing through the ignition lag period, additional droplets are being injected into the chamber. If the ignition delay is longer, the actual burning of the first few droplets is delayed and a greater quantity of fuel droplets gets accumulated in the chamber.
When the actual burning commences, the additional fuel can cause too rapid a rate of pressure rise, as shown on pressure crank angle diagram above, resulting in Jamming of forces against the piston as if struck by a hammer and rough engine operation. If the ignition delay is quite long, so much fuel can accumulate that the rate of pressure rise is almost instantaneous.
Such, a situation produces extreme pressure differentials and violent gas vibration known as knocking diesel el knock , and is evidenced by audible knock. The phenomenon is similar to that in the SI engine. However, in SI Engine knocking occurs near the end of combustion whereas in CI engine, knocking the occurs near the beginning of combustion. An extensive delay period can be due to following factors: A low compression ratio permitting only a marginal self ignition temperature to be reached.
If these factors are controlled, then the detonation can be avoided. Using a better fuel.. Higher CN fuel has lower delay period and reduces knocking tendency. Controlling the Rate of Fuel Supply. By injecting less fuel in the beginning and then more fuel amount in the combustion chamber detonation can be controlled to a certain extent. Cam shape of suitable profile can be designed for this purpose. Knock reducing fuel injector : This type of injector avoid the sudden increase in pressure inside the combustion chamber because of accumulated fuel.
This can be done by arranging the injector so that only small amount t of fuel is injected first. This can be achieved by using two or more injectors arranging in out of phase. By using Ignition accelerators : C N number can be increased by adding chemical called dopes. The two chemical dopes are used are ethyl-nitrate and amyle nitrate in concentration of 8. But these two increase the NOx emissions Increasing Swirl : Knocking can be greatly reduced by increasing swirl or reducing turbulence.
Swirl helps in knock free combustion. In both the cases, the knocking depends on the auto ignition lag of the fuel-air mixture. But careful examination of knocking phenomenon in SI and CI engines reveals the following differences: 1.
In spark ignition engines, auto ignition of end gas away from the spark plug, most likely near the end of combustion causes knocking. But in compression engines the auto ignition of charge causing knocking is at the start of combustion. In order to avoid knocking in SI engine, it is necessary to prevent auto ignition of the end gas to take place at all. In CI engine, the earliest auto ignition is necessary to avoid knocking 3.
The knocking in SI engine takes place in homogeneous mixture, therefore, the rate of pressure rise and maximum pressure is considerably high. In case of CI engine, the mixture is not homogenous and hence the rate of pressure is lower than in SI engine. It is lot more easy to distinguish between knocking and non-knocking condition in SI engines as human ear r easily finds the difference.
However in CI engines, normal ignition itself is by auto-ignition and rate of pressure rise under the normal conditions is considerably high 10 bar against 2. The noise level becomes excessive under detonation condition.
Therefore there is no. SI fuels should have long delay period to avoid knocking. CI fuels should have short delay period to avoid knocking. The cetane number is a numerical measure of the influence the diesel fuel has in determining the ignition delay.
Higher the cetane rating of the fuel lesser is the propensity for diesel knock. The cetane number of a diesel fuel is a measure of its ignition quality. HMN is used because it is more stable compound and has slightly better ignition quality. For high sped engine, cetane number of 50 is required, for medium speed engine about High octane number implies low cetane number. In other words good CI engine fuel is bad CI engine fuel.
This scale is made possible because ignition quality is quite sensitive to hydrocarbons compositions. That is paraffin have high ignition quality and aromatic compounds have low ignition quality. Thus the diesel index gives an indication of ignition quality obtained from certain physical characteristics of fuel as opposed to an actual determination in the test engine.
It therefore n gives an indication of chemical composition of fuel e since the more parafinnic the fuel the higher solution temperature. Likewise, a higher API gravity reflects a low specific gravity and indicates a high paraffinic content, which corresponds to a good ignition quality.
In SI engine knocking occurs near the end of combustion, on, where as in CI engine this occurs in the beginning of combustion. Because of this dissimilarity in the time of starting of knock in SI and CI engines. The conditions which reduce the knock tendency in SI engine will increase the knocking tendency in CI I engine. Diesel has a high cetane number and low octane number 30 and petrol has high Octane number ad low cetane number Figure shows typical indicator diagram of a diesel engine with sharp pressure oscillating during the combustion on caused by shock waves when using petrol Weak mixture gives better efficiency in CI engine- July As the mixture is made lean less fuel the temperature rise due to combustion will be lowered as a result of reduced energy input per unit mass of mixture.
This will result in lower specific heat. Further, it will lower the losses due to dissociation and variation in specific heat. The efficiency is therefore, higher and, in fact, approaches the air-cycle efficiency as the fuel-air ratio is reduced r as shown in adjacent figure. The power output curve for a typical CI engine operating at constant speed is shown in Fig. In external. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion of fuel and converts part of this energy.
Diesel injection, ignition, and fuel air mixing 1. Fuel spray phenomena. Spontaneous ignition 3. Effects of fuel jet and charge motion on mixingcontrolled combustion 4. Fuel injection hardware 5. Li, S. Sapsford Ricardo Consulting Engineer s Ltd.
Engine Heat Transfer 1. Impact of heat transfer on engine operation 2. Heat transfer environment 3. Energy flow in an engine 4. Engine heat transfer Fundamentals Spark-ignition engine heat transfer Diesel. Marine Piston Damage By Tom Benton, Marine Surveyor In the last several years I have noticed an increase in the number of outboard motors which have sustained piston damage, and several cases in V-8 inboard.
Pannirselvam, M. Ramajayam, V. Gurumani, S. Arulselvan, G. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant. Normal combustion: is smooth and even from the spark plug through the top of the chamber. The Kinetic. The common fuels for internal combustion engines are: 1. Petrol 2. Power kerosene 3. High speed diesel.
Pollution by 2-Stroke Engines By Engr. Hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines Contents: Introduction External mixture formation for hydrogen operated engines Experimental engine for hydrogen in Stralsund Internal mixture formation. If the issue is failure of the engine to turn-over. Yet it never seemed to catch.
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