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To convert it into a maximally useful dictionary would have required much work, which would have increased the cost of the dictionary enormously. It would have been necessary to insert diacritics on all words, thus providing information on accent, and to allocate each noun, adjective, pronoun and numeral to an accent class. Information on the present and past tenses of the verb, and on stress movement in the verb, would have been useful too.
So, for example, the genitive case and gender of at least those nouns where the nominative case, the citation form, was not an unambiguous indicator of the declension pattern and gender, would have had to be inserted; for the verb at least the third person present and past would have had to be inserted; and it would have been useful to give an explicit indication of the cases governed by the prepositions.
It is a part of our aim in these notes to enhance the usability of the dictionary. As already mentioned, the main limitation concerns Lithuanian accent; where information is given in these notes, but it cannot be straightforwardly applied to all the dictionary entries.
This is a drawback, but perhaps not too serious a one. Anyone learning Lithuanian will have access to that information, for a manageable number of words, in their textbook and its glossaries, and they will in any event probably acquire what they really need from the point of view of accent by going ahead and speaking the language. Essentially, the notes will help find almost any obscure word encountered in a text; provided, of course, that the word is in the dictionary.
In addition, the notes provide a fairly comprehensive, but unavoidably incomplete, sketch of Lithuanian grammar. Meanings are on the whole not given. The acute accent, which is not used in everyday writing but is restricted to grammars and linguistic works, denotes a long vowel emphasized on its beginning and giving the impression of a sharp, sudden pronunciation also referred to as a falling intonation ; there is also a tilde, which denotes a long vowel emphasized towards its end, thus more drawn-out also referred to as a rising intonation , and a grave accent, referring to a short stressed vowel also placed over the i or u in il, ir, in, im, ul, ur, un, um diphthongs with an emphasized first component or 'falling intonation'.
Unless you are learning the Lithuanian language for linguistic reasons, you will never need to write the accents yourself. For most people it is enough to know that they indicate where the stress falls in a word. In addition to the thirty-two letters of the alphabet note especially the position of y and that the two a's, three e's, three i's and three u's are each brought together in the 'a', 'e', 'i' and 'u' sections of the dictionary , there are several digraphs which might be mentioned, namely ch as in loch , dz as in adze , dt gas in age , ie pronounced somewhat as ye in yes; preceded by when absolute word-initial, e.
It must be borne in mind that palatalized t and d before a, q, o, u, If, ri are respectively c and dt, thus cia, ciq , clfio, dtiu etc. This is extremely important in declension and conjugation. The letters help us here to a large extent, since the spelling system of Lithuanian is extremely straightforward. All the long vowels but f are straightforward in pronunciation; they are clear, pure sounds, without any tailing-off, thus as in northern England English father q , same e , seal y, i , soon u, If.
The short vowels are as in sit and northern England English but. Short a is as in northern England English cat, and e as in bet. The two vowels which can be long or short tend to be short when final, whether stressed or not; otherwise they tend to be long when stressed, though there are exceptions, e. When unstressed, they are short. There follow a few examples.
Short vowels alus lin as mano bet Bona grazus medinis tas mane politika mils akis kasa geresnis opera namu manimi saldus Kaune tavo Long vowels The unstressed vowels are short unless they occur only long. Theirs is very close to the English pronunciation; one might just note that the puff of air which cannot but immediately follow p, t, and k is less salient in Lithuanian, much as in northern England English.
An exception here is when they occur at the end of a word. What does have to be mentioned is that all the Lithuanian consonants also occur palatalized, which, simplifying considerably, means that they are very closely followed by a slight y-sound, which should be considered integral to the consonant. Palatalized consonants only occur in certain positions. First, before other palatalized consonants the only exceptions are the velars k, g, which need to be in direct contact with the palatalizing vowel or i in ia, etc.
So just let nature take its course. Thirdly, it occurs when a consonant is followed by an i which precedes a vowel other than those just listed, thus ia, iq, io, iu, ilf, iii. Here the i is not to be pronounced as an i; it is simply an indicator of the palatalization of the preceding consonant except after p, b, where this i has been replaced by j and is pronounced UJ and p, b remain hard: pjauti, bjauros.
We can now give a few examples of the consonants. As we have seen from the notes on pronunciation, Lithuanian vowels and diphthongs may be stressed or unstressed, may be differentiated for length or shortness, and if long and stressed are differentiated for rising or falling intonation. In books on the Lithuanian language, short stressed vowels bear a grave accent, e. Where Notes on Lithuanian grammar vi such diphthongal combinations have 'rising pitch', the tilde is placed over the second component.
Length and shortness need not be as difficult as it may seem. The vowels written q, f, e, ;, y, o, If, ii are always long, and the vowels written i, u are always short though a diphthong of which they are a component may be long.
The vowels a and e may be long or short - when unstressed a and e will be short. The vowel o will be short in loanwords. In the verb the stress, in the present and simple past henceforth 'past' tenses, is either fixed off the ending throughout or fixed on the ending in the 'I' and 'thou' forms and off it in the other forms; in the other finite forms it is the infinitive stress which prevails.
Lithuanian convention gives only the infinitive, third person present, and third person past in the dictionary entry extra forms are given as necessary. It would be helpful if the mobile stress pattern was explicitly indicated by inclusion of, say, the first person present form; such information is given in some textbooks, e.
Exception: certain suffixed verbs in -yti, e. Many verbs may be prefixed; when this happens, the stress may transfer to the prefix. Prefixes include ap i -, at i -, be-, j-, ii-, nu-, pa-, par-, per this one is always stressed , pri-, su-, ui-, the negative particle ne- and the reflexive particle -si-. Thus, present stems moko, dirba, and past stem priitino indicate respectively mokau, dirbu and priitinau while present stem neia and past stem riiie indicate respectively neiu and raiiaii.
The two components of the rule should be applied separately, since although the vast majority of verbs have the same pattern in the present and the past, they will be different if appropriate. Thus, the very important groups of verbs in - i duti and - i uoti, with present stems - i duja and - i uoja but past stem - i iivo for both , have fixed stress in the present and mobile stress in the past.
Class 1 has fixed stress, which is never on the ending; indeed, it is most often on the first syllable, though in three-or-more-syllable nominals it needn't be. Class 2 nominals have a stressed ending in the instrumental singular, locative singular if the nominative singular is in -as , and accusative plural, and if the nominative singular ends in -a, it too is stressed.
Otherwise the stress tends to be on the last-but-one syllable. Class 3 words are stressed off the ending in the singular, with the exception of the locative; nouns in -us have the stress on the end in the instrumental singular too. In the plural the ending is stressed, with the exception of the accusative plural. Class 4 nominals in the singular are like Class 3 nominals in -us and Class 2 nominals in -a, namely with the ending stressed. All the plural forms, except the nominative plural in -os, are stressed on the ending.
Overall, we note that the dative singular tends not to be stressed on the ending, and that the accusative singular never is, with the exception of monosyllables, the word kuris 'who, which', and a few isolated forms where the accusative singular has a different origin, e.
There are lots of examples in the tables. If it is any consolation, the accent classes are really known actively only by specialists. Moreover, with two exceptions it is clear from the spelling when a vowel is long or short, and all the vowels tend to be pronounced clearly - in other words, you are on the way to a good pronunciation even without the admittedly important information on accent.
Gender, Nnmber, the Cases, Person and Tense There are two genders in Lithuanian, namely masculine and feminine; gender is not realized in certain forms, e. Adjectives also have an indeclinable genderless form, used to convey 'it is.. There are two numbers, singular and plural, with remnants of dual forms in the numeral for '2'. There are seven cases: nominative the citation form in the dictionary , vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental and locative.
The nominative is typically the subject of a verb and used when one simply names or identifies something or someone, e. The vocative is the address form, used when you seek to attract someone's attention by calling them by name, and does not engage in any relations with other Notes on Lithuanian grammar viii words in the sentence.
The accusative is typically the case of the direct object of the verb, and is also very widely used in time 'during, on' expressions. The genitive, the 'of' or possessive case, is extremely common in Lithuanian, especially when it precedes a noun and then functions very much as an indeclinable adjective, e.
It is also used after a large number of verbs, after all negative verbs which if positive would have the accusative, to convey the partitive, namely 'some', to convey an indefinite number of similar animates or inanimates in which instance it may function as the subject of the sentence , and to convey 'aim' after verbs of motion and invitation, e.
The dative is the 'to, for' case 'to write something to someone', 'to bring something for breakfast' - associated with this 'aim' nuance is its use alongside the infinitive to convey, say, 'he wrote books to teach children' , and is very common in impersonal constructions, e. Jam salta 'He is cold, lit. It is also used after a certain number of verbs, to convey the amount of time for which one goes to do something, and may be used in the 'dative absolute' construction along with the gerund.
The instrumental is the case used to denote the means or instrument by which something is done, the route which is taken in going somewhere, the manner in which one does something, and the reason, say, why someone is ill or died. It too is used after a certain number of verbs.
The locative conveys 'place in which' not 'place to which'. In a few expressions it may convey a time during which or at which something happened, e. The accusative, genitive and instrumental are also used after prepositions. The other cases do not occur after prepositions, if one excludes a few set expressions. In the tense forms the first person singular and plural and the second person singular and plural are differentiated.
The third persons singular and plural, however, share a single form they can be differentiated only in compound tenses, composed of the verb 'to be' as auxiliary and a participial form, the latter taking the nominative case of the singular or plural, masculine or feminine, as appropriate.
The first and second person plural forms of the simple tenses are simply, with one exception plus an inserted i in the future , the third person form with -me first person plural or -te second person plural added. The future and imperfect, or frequentative past, tenses, and the imperative and conditional or 'subjunctive' moods are formed in a straightforward fashion from the infinitive, the only form cited in this dictionary.
However, there is no such straightforward mapping between the infinitive and the two most common tenses, the present and the simple past. In Notes on Lithuanian grammar ix the notes a strategy is outlined to help in determining the verb forms from the infinitive and for locating an infinitive where you have only another form.
No further information is given here on the uses of the tenses, or on the category of aspect, which in Lithuanian is realized rather differently from the way in which it is realized in, say, Russian. The verb also counts a set of participles and gerunds, as well as reflexive forms and numerous prefixes which more or less greatly adapt the verb's meaning. To negate a verb, the particle ne- is prefixed to it.
Thus, if we take the verb sakjti, the negative form of the third person simple past is nesake. It also occurs in numerous prefixed forms, e. It also occurs as a reflexive, sakjtis, thus giving sakesi. When negated, the reflexive particle shifts to the position between the negative particle and the verb and, if the prefixed verb is taken, to the position between the prefix and the verb, thus: nesisilke and neatsisilke. Two irregular negative verb forms are, first, the present of biiti 'to be', namely nesU, nesi etc.
Nouns There are five declension types 1-V , sub-grouped into , , , and We give one example for each plus extras as felt necessary , however great or small the number in each group. The tables are summary, and omit some variation. Lietuvoje-Lietuvoj, and the final-s of the dative plural may be lost. The nominative case is sufficient to identify the declension type and subgroup of many nouns. In the case of the latter, of which there are very few examples, we might note that nouns following the VI 11 pattern include akmuo, piemuo, skaitmuo and suo the last retains the -u- throughout, thus genitive iutis.
It will be noted that most such nouns are disyllabic in the nominative singular. A few examples of trisyllabic nouns, all feminine, are given immediately after the disyllabic feminines. Masculine type IV noun dan tis debesis deguonis geluonis vagis iveris Genitive plural Accent class -if -if 4 none -iif rare -iif -iif 3b 3b 3b 4 3 One must note also the obscurity which may be created by the palatalization of t and d to c and di in those nouns where the genitive ending, not to mention the nominative ending, begins with an i immediately preceding a, q , o, u, If , ii the last may not occur.
Thus: midis, genitive mediio, locative medyje, svecias, genitive svecio, but locative svetyje. Needless to say, much more could be said about the declension of nouns, but this remains to be discovered through a textbook, course, reading or just using the language.
It is perhaps sufficient to let the tables speak for themselves. Vocative forms are not always attested. Notes on Lithuanian grammar Sing. III 7 aikiti 3 marti 4 'daughter-in-law' 'square' iirdis 3; fern. Not all adjectives have the long, or pronominal, forms. The vocative is always identical with the nominative. There is also a genderless form, corresponding on its own to 'it is x', without the expression of the verb buti in the present tense.
This form is identical to the nominative singular masculine without the final -s, e. It is not formed from adjectives in -is. The roman numerals separated by an oblique line refer to the declensional classes of the masculine and feminine forms respectively. Mas c. Zits gra. Zaiis G. Ziam D. Ziu I. Ziame L. Zl gra. Ziij gra.
Zios gra. Zfems graziai gra. Ziais gra. Zia gra. Ziuose gra. Zioje Fem. Ziq gra. Zi6ms graZias graZiomls gra. See the Verbs section for full tables of the participles. Pronouns Personal pronouns 'I' N. One might note that the genitives of mes and jUs are also used as possessive adjectives and pronouns, viz.
As we shall see below, this also applies to the personal pronouns of the third person. None of these possessives is declinable. Try not to confuse the plural forms with the forms of jiis. Declined like jis are the demonstrative sts 'this', and the relative kuris 'who, which', each retaining -i- for -j-, except where we have ji-, in which case j is simply dropped, thus nominative plural masculine iii, dative plural masculine kuriems, but nominative and dative plural feminine iios, kurioms.
Demonstrative pronouns tas'that' N. Indefinite and 'other' pronouns Declined like vienas 'one' see the numbers section below are kitas ' an other; next in time expressions ', visas 'all', and tikras ' a certain'. In those with two syllables the stress is fixed as in the nominative singular masculine. Finally, the 'emphatic' pronoun: N. Numbers Cardinal b Ordinal Cardinal a pirmos, pirma vienos, viena vieneri, vienerios dveji, dvijos dil, dvi antros, antra abeji, abijos abil, abi trjs tricios, trecia treJi, trijos keturi, kiturios ketvirtos, ketvirta ketveri, kitverios penki, penkios penkeri, penkerios penktos, penkta iiitos, ieita ieii, iiiios ieieri, iiierios septyni, septjnios septyneri, septjnerios septintos, septinta aituoni, aituonios aituoneri, aitdonerios aituntos, aitunta devyni, devjnios devyneri, devjnerios deviiitos, devinta diiimt deiimtos, deiimta vienuolika vienuoliktos, vienuolikta dvjlika etc.
The other cardinals are followed by the genitive plural. The 'tens' are indeclinable although one may come across declinable forms. In compound numbers the components are simply placed one after the other, without any conjunctions, and all the numbers which can decline do decline, with the final component determining the form of the noun or noun phrase counted, thus '21' is followed by a singular, '25' by a plural, etc.
The cardinal b forms are used with nouns which occur only in the plural, even though they refer to single items, e. The ordinals behave morphologically like adjectives, agreeing in case, number and gender; in compound ordinals only the final component has the ordinal form, as in English. They are very often found in their definite form, e. The feminine gender is chosen because of the feminine word for part, dafJS, -iis. Needless to say, such forms are rare in everyday conversation.
However, for those which are more widespread there are special words. Thus: pusiiito Dto '5. Overall, the fractions are followed by the genitive singular of the noun or noun phrase counted. The ordinals have a special form, obtained by removing the final -s of the nominative singular masculine, without any effect on accentuation. Thus: pirma, aiitra, tricia, A few tables: Masc.
The tens may be regarded as indeclinable. The teens accent type 1 decline like feminine nouns in -a, with the exception that the accusative is identical to the nominative. Simtas accent type 4: short stressed ending in the instrumental and locative singular and accusative and locative plural, long acute ending in the dative plural, and long circumflex ending elsewhere in the plural declines like a masculine noun in -as, as does milijonas accent type 2, i.
The accent types of the plural numbers are dveji, treji 4 , abeji, ketveri, penkeri, Ieieri 3b , and vieneri, septyneri, aituoneri, devyneri 3". Examples: trejiltrejos Fem. Verbs The forms of most Lithuanian verbs can be derived in a straightforward fashion once one knows the infinitive, which always ends in -ti, and the third person forms of the present and past tenses.
Unfortunately, our dictionary gives only the infinitive, so a major purpose of this section will be to provide information useful in deriving the other forms from the infinitive alone. According to the Lithuanian convention, a bar or double bar is inserted at xxi Notes on Lithuanian grammar an appropriate point in the dictionary entry the infinitive for the verb, and the present and past components from that point on are given after a hyphen.
If this is not possible, full forms are given as necessary. In the past tense entry it is clear that if the third person ending is -e, then the first person singular ending will be -iau with -i-. If the first person singulars dirbu, dirbau, dainuoju, dainavau, grjitii, grjiau, raiau, raiiau, lidunuosi-lioviausi were explicitly given, even the accentuation problem would be less opaque; as is evident from the preceding examples, both first person singulars would be necessary for a verb like dainuoti, since the present has fixed stress and the past has mobile stress.
However, as we saw in the section Accent Types at the beginning of this grammatical sketch, it is possible to formulate a simple rule to pinpoint whether the stress will be fixed or mobile without having to give the first person singular. For the imperative, if the infinitive ending is preceded by -g- or -k-, then they coalesce with the imperative formant -k i - as k, e. Remember that the reflexive particle is appended to the verb except when the verb is negated or has a prefix, in which case it is inserted between the negative particle or prefix and the root.
Prefixed and negative reflexive verbs may have a stress pattern different from that of the simple verb. There are three conjugations, based on the themes -a-, -i- and -o-; the basic endings are approximately as follows for each person the present is given in the first row and the past in the second; the slashes separate the conjugations, with the rider that for the third person past tense Conjugation I may have -e too : Simple Singular 1 p. Note that the first and second person plural endings are appended to the third person endings there are slight changes in the future and conditional , with the reflexive particle displaced to the end.
The final -e of the first and second person plural endings may be lost in spoken Lithuanian. In the third person, and the first and second person singular, the reflexive particle, when final, may be -si or -s. There follow a few examples of the conjugation of first, second, and third conjugation verbs. It might be seen as redundant to give the future, imperfect, conditional and imperative, since their formation is very straightforward, but we do this for clarity's sake: Conjugation I -a- : dirblti, -a, -o 'work' Past dirbau dirbai dirbo dirbome Future dirbsiu dlrbsi difbs dirbsime Imperfect dirbdavau dirbdavai dirbdavo dirbdavome 2p.
Present dirbu dirbi dirba dirbame Conditional dirbCiau dlrbtum dirbtq dirbtume dirbtumeme dirbtute dirbtumete dirbtq Imperative dlrbk! Conjugation I -a- : susitiklti, susitiiika, -osi 'meet each other ' reflexive Future susitiksiu susitiksi susitiks susitiksime Imperfect susitikdavau susitikdavai susitikdavo susitikdavome 2p. Present susitinkil susitinki susitiii.
Present baigiil baigi baigia baigiame 2 p. Notes on Lithuanian grammar xxiii 3p. Present mataii matai mato matome Conditional matjciau matjtum matjtq matjtume matytumeme matjtute matjtumete matjtq Imperative matjk! Present m6kausi m6kaisi m6kosi m6komes Conditional Imperative m6kyCiausi m6kytumsi m6kykis! Conditional nesim6kyciau nesim6kytum nesim6kytq nesim6kytume nesim6kytumeme nesim6kytute nesim6kytumete nesim6kytq xxiv Notes on Lithuanian grammar Irregular: buti, esu..
Present esu est yra esame Conditional bficiau bfttum bfttq bfitume bfttumeme bfitute bfitumete bfitq Imperative bfikime! Making the most of the infinitive Our examples for Conjugation I had a consonant before the -ti of the infinitive, that for Conjugation II had -e- before the -ti, and those for Conjugation III had -y- before the -ti.
Unfortunately, things are not so simple. To start with, how would we predict the -i- before certain endings of Conjugation I baigti? In what follows, though it will involve a certain amount of listing, both of criteria and of actual verbs, we try to alleviate the situation. Once we know the infinitive, third person present and third person past, we have access to all the forms of almost all verbs.
The only overall gap is the information on the position of the stress in the first and second persons singular of the present and past, something we shall set aside here. In the other finite forms the stress is that of the infinitive. To make the best use of the dictionary, which gives only the infinitive, we need to be able to predict with reasonable confidence what the conjugation and endings of individual verbs will be, on the evidence of their infinitive, and, when looking up Lithuanian verbs on the evidence of some other form, we need to be able to make reasonably informed guesses as to the likely infinitive.
It is useful to observe that under certain entries examples are given which help us establish the pattern, e. In the following listings it is also very important to note where the t:c and d:df alternations occur. For example: keisti: iaisti: present past present past keiciu - keiti - keicia - keiciame - keiciate - keicia keiciaii - keitei- keite - keiteme - keitete - keite iaidiiu- iaidi- iaidiia- iaidiiame- iaidfiate faidfia iaidiiaii- iaidei- iaide- iaideme- f.
From the conjugation tables it should be clear how to derive the remaining forms from the third person present and past. And look carefully at the entries in the lists, seeing the three forms as one and noting relationships between them. The roman numerals overall look at some significant vowel in the stem, and have the following references: i some arguably basic, simple, vowel; ii some other vowel; iii a diphthong; iv and v the mixed verbs with infinitive suffix e, o.
Since most of them occur very frequently, we might begin by mentioning those verbs which are considered irregular. Fortunately, in all but one case once we know the three magic forms we have access to the rest, just as with the 'regular' verbs.
With this one exception of buti, we note that they are all Conjugation I verbs, some of them having 'hard endings' in the present and 'soft endings' in the past. This makes their allocation to groups within Conjugation I absolutely straightforward. So: Infinitive aiiti bftti deti duoti eiti gauti imti fikti mini pwti sluoti vlrti Third person present or all present, as necessary aiina esu, esl, yra, esame, esate, yra deda duoda eina gauna lma lieka mlrsta puola sluoja verda Third person past ave buvo de.
On the basis of the summary table we note that verbs in Conjugations II and III are very restricted though they are also both plentiful and include many very common verbs. Conjugation II is composed entirely of verbs with an infinitive in -hL We denote such verbs in Conjugation II as belonging to sub-group 'IId e ', 'd' standing for so-called 'mixed' verbs, i. However, not all such verbs belong to Conjugation II though most of them do , so we need to isolate all or a representative number of those which belong to Conjugation I or Conjugation III.
The rest will be Conjugation II. Conjugation III too contains verbs where endings may be added directly on to the root, with either a suffixal -y- appearing in the infinitive, e. These two are classed here as 'IIId o '. Conjugation I is indeed extremely complex.
Essentially it is composed of verbs in -a or -ia in the present and respectively -o or -e in the past, with a certain amount of crossover. We divide these into four groups, '1' representing hard endings, '3' representing soft endings, '2' representing hard endings in the present and soft in the past, and '4' representing soft endings in the present and hard in the past.
Note that the terms 'hard' and 'soft' endings refer mainly to the palatalized character of the consonant preceding the ending and not to the ending itself; note too that the palatal consonant j is followed by 'hard' endings. For Group 1, with hard endings, we may start with those with a basic i, u in the root exceptions have soft endings in the past, e.
We may have lengthening of the root vowel in the present in the case of the vowel a, it is long in the past too; the lengthening in the present reflects a former nasal consonant, now lost. Infinitive svlsti Present sviiita Past svlto Notes on Lithuanian grammar XXX and d underlying sin bilsti, gesti, rilsti and sklisti, e. Also note that where the root ends in s, i, z, i, the suffix is t.
The original root-final consonant surfaces in the past tense. For mixed verbs we may begin with those with an -e- suffix in the infinitive, realized as -ej- in the past. In addition to the above verbs with suffixes in -eti and -oti, where the e or o appears in the present and the past, as well as the infinitive, there are five other such suffixes, the first three of them as listed below very productive in the language. Note that the latter, exemplified by ufauti, have a different stress pattern.
Ziuoti Zliliuoti Present dainuoja eiliuoja milruoja registruoja vliZiuoja Zliliuoja Past dainavo eiliavo miltiivo registravo vliZiavo Zaliavo Many such verbs come from other languages. They are also often formed from adjectives. Very often these verbs have a or e in the root in our three basic forms.
Or one may have a different vowel in the root historically speaking, a short vowel, namely a, e, u, i, in the present and a long vowel, respectively o, e, u, y, in the past; in the case of i:y, this applies only before I and r. Note how the infinitive may have o, eor ii, i.
Cia siufite skqsti skundZi. There is no problem in simply noting the verb isolate liisti. They retain their verbal functions in the sense of governing objects, but decline in ways reminiscent of adjectives rather than conjugating like verbs. First, a concise table giving basic information, then some example paradigms. Verb dirbti Tense, 3p. Add -iqs, etc. Replace -owith -rs, etc. Replace final -o with -us. Replace -ti with -tas, etc.
Notes on Lithuanian grammar xl The reflexive forms are restricted, and basically add -is after masculine nominative singular, -s after feminine nominative singular, and otherwise -si after a vowel and -is after a consonant.
Only those tables are given where the declension is different from that of normal adjectives. The special active participle occurs only in the nominative, viz. The passive participles are used with the verb butito render the passive voice the present passive participle may render 'action' while the past passive participle renders 'state'. A rare future passive may be formed by adding -imas, etc. By adding -nas, etc.
Thus: Sitas dtirbas yrli baigtinas 'This work is to be finished'. Adverbs kaip? The same applies to the superlative; as for the comparative, it is formed by suffixing -iau to the simple form. Thus: giras-gerai, platiis-placiai, graiiis-graiiai, geresnis-geriaii, geridusias-geridusiai.
Associated with these are a whole host of Uthuanian adverbs with, or without, specialized meanings. For example: labai'very', visiikai ne- 'not at all "quite" without the negative ', butinai'absolutely, without fail, by all means', mielai'with pleasure', atsar. To say 'this morning', 'tomorrow evening', 'yesterday afternoon', etc. For 'this' one also finds the appropriate form of Sis 'this' Sf, iiij, Sitame. Also: paskutini kaitq 'last time'.
The accusative is also used for clock time 'at'. For 'years', however, one uses the instrumental of metai, namely metais, thus iiais metais, praeitais metais, kitais metais, kiekvienais metais also used for 'in a particular year'. Also useful are anksti 'early', ankiciaii 'earlier, formerly', ankscidusiai 'earliest'' pei anksti 'too early'' velai 'late'' veliaii 'later'' pei velai 'too late'' ilgai 'for a long time French "pendant longtemps" ', seniai 'long ago, long since French "depuis longtemps" ', greitai or netriikus 'soon', and tuoj 'soon, immediately'.
Here are the words for the days of the week, months and seasons, with the most common associated time expressions: Sat. Name pirmiidienis antriidienis treciiidienis ketvirtiidienis penktiidienis ieitiidienis sekmiidienis 'On, in May Jun. They also serve for 'to here, hither' and 'to there, thither'. Roughly synonymous is the more frequently Notes on Lithuanian grammar xliv encountered tai.
Thus: Kiis tai yra? Thus: Kodil tu Vilniuje? Two words one might use here are kadangi 'since, as, in view of the fact that', and nes 'for'. Words for 'therefore' include todjl and tad. Negatives We have mentioned a few negatives above. Of course, not all are adverbs, but here is a small selection. Remember the need in Lithuanian, when a verb is involved, to have 'double negatives'.
Thus: nei At least po and iki may be found with the dative in a few fixed expressions, e. Conjunctions A few co-ordinating conjunctions 'And': bei cia The conjunction taiis often used together with many conjunctions, as a way of balancing the clauses, e. Baronas, J. Klimas, and W. Fourth edition: Juodokas, A. Keinys, St. Notes on Lithuanian grammar xlviii Lemchenas, Ch. Sabaliauskas, A. Schmalstieg, W. Schmalstieg, William R. Tekoriene, D. Basic Grammar and Conversation, Kaunas: Spindulys.
They are traditional and full of fascinating information. Both are inevitably somewhat dated, the latter being heavily 'Soviet'. More up-to-date courses, one of them being due to appear in , are: Paulauskiene, A. Valeika , Modern Lithuanian. Ramoniene, M. The asterisk marks works which were of considerable use in putting together these notes. The author is very grateful to Meilute Ramoniene for her comments on an earlier and less comprehensive version of these notes, to the authors of the dictionary, and to Claire Trocme of Routledge, but is entirely responsible for their final content and would be very grateful for any comments.
IItC W paR. Jls Jo d. Mmony, dlscordance dlslmlllacija lingv. Dfesel engine dlzenterija med. Iantis dOminating domkratas tech. Jimas bmu. IJ muss U, dulktl drizzle; -Ja smuJJcus Uetus it is drfzzling; it drizzles damllal smoke ag; """" u. Jlmas criish ing ; perl:fino rolling; tolimaa nimble, rumbling -tl crash; apie perl:fln4 t. Jieta pit; Muk! Jlq d. Jalvas twOmaster dvllllalls: -lalls susltarlmas blIateral agriement -talkls grom. I Jcov11 march fnto battle; e.
IJ proto go" mad; go" off one's head; e. Iking excavator ekskursllantaa, -4! Asdcity eleganllcUa elegance -t11kaa elegant -tilkumas elegance elegiii. Ja lit. Bevator elgesys c6nduct, behaviour; blogas e. III valnllcas crown of thonlS -troll 6ot. Is lallcas gmm. Jmer of execUtion takultatyvus optional; r.
Pharisee farmaclleutas, -e pharmacist -JJa phArmacy -lnln ltas fr. Musing resources pl; au. Crlgate t'reska tap. IJaretJ lJl it grieves me to look at him 2 apie daiktq - veri! Ius 1 graudu6 s6rrowful, moumful; gailinga6 p tiful; compassionate; g. In operation; bllletas O:nal, deffnltlve galvlla 1 head; ""'OS apdangaJas headdress; hat; c:ukraus g. I am dfzzy with ; my head is ht a wllirl; elk nuo mano ""'OS! Jida ,. J a pie malo"" hapf fragrant, sweet, sweet-scented, aromatic; -u.
Jcvap88 fragrance, perfiune, sweet smell; Jcolcsii fj aJcmens angJies obtli. General of tbe Army genl:tl pjauatyti laJ:a. I am afraid that Ices slake I slack lime -tuvas tech. One gesture; beau geste gestl I irti, trll:ti; pra. J:aJ lsllakniJc;s deep-rooted -iaspaude poligr. Into the heart of the matter gylis depth gylys 1 geltaoni. Ja secondary school; high school; mergalc! Useless argwnent, mere li. Based on the book by Vilhelm Moberg published in depicting a few people emigrating from Sweden to the United States in the - early Sign In.
The Emigrants Original title: Utvandrarna. Play trailer Drama History. Director Erik Poppe. Top credits Director Erik Poppe. See more at IMDbPro. Trailer Photos Top cast Edit. Sofia Helin Judit as Judit. Tove Lo Ulrika as Ulrika. Lisa Carlehed Kristina as Kristina. Mikkel Bratt Silset Sailor as Sailor. Owen Crow Shoe Sioux man as Sioux man. Hannes Fohlin Samuel as Samuel. Goran Aliskanovic Alone traveler as Alone traveler.
Duncan Green Conductor as Conductor. Emelie Dahlskog Village woman as Village woman. Stefan Cronwall Blacksmith as Blacksmith. Ola Normelli Country gentleman as Country gentleman. Erik Poppe. More like this. Storyline Edit. Did you know Edit.
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|Large fin monster hunter portable 3rd torrent||Details Edit. Short a is as in northern England English cat, and e as in bet. This is extremely important in declension and conjugation. Asdcity eleganllcUa elegance -t11kaa elegant -tilkumas elegance elegiii. I am of the opfn. Also: paskutini kaitq 'last time'. JIU a nemirtingas unearth [.|
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